African Re-Defined

Submitted by Dr. Bamidele Adeoye

Lest we forget Chinua Achebe’s things fall apart, the center cannot hold, and no longer at ease. It is no longer at ease for the west to sustain the fallacies that Africa did not contribute to world civilization and or history.

The internet was described as a disruptive technology, so it is the idea of redefining and repackaging Africa. And, as Omoyele Sowore vividly described Nigeria as a construction site and that the leaders can no longer operate with an analog mindset for the 21st century.

Thus, redefining and repackaging Africa requires a disruptive delicate balancing creative act that must challenge the colonial contradictions and dismantle the old colonial indoctrination. Therefore, just as the internet was a disruptive technology, Africa needs a disruptive awakening, for the new dawn. Africa can no longer operate with the colonial mindset and contradictions in the 21st century. Consequently, Africa needs a shock therapy, a rude awakening for the 21st century, and must challenge the future.

And, until Africa tells her stories from her perspectives, her stories will always be told from other’s cloudy lenses. Africa must develop her storylines and make it appealing, if not, Africa will not be respected anywhere in the world.

However, according to Dorothy Blake Farden, Africa’s first contribution to human progress, then, was the evolution of man himself. And, as George G.M. James revealed in his book, Stolen Legacy; how Greek philosophy was stolen Egyptian philosophy. James also stated that ancient Egyptian were the first to develop a complex religious system called the Mysteries, the first system of salvation in the world, yet, the west argued that Africa did not contribute to world civilization.

All the countries with colonial imposed names should change their names to reflect the new Africa. According to Jim Rhon, whatever happens to you from age zero to eighteen, we blame your parents, however from eighteen up, we blame you. Africa is long due for redefining herself with new names and attitudes that reflect her for the 21st century.

Consequently, Chukwudi Okeke Maduno (White Magic: The Origins and Ideas of Black Mental and Cultural Colonialism) emphasized that the role Africa played in the evolution of human civilization has not been enthusiastically acknowledged, but falsified and understated by the west. Thus, we must understand the destruction of black civilization by Chancellor Williams, which led to the delimitations of Africa, her current state of despair.

Conversely, the basic factor for Africa regeneration is the awakened race-consciousness, which means that a new, and unique civilization to be added to world history, as posited by Pixley Ka Isaka Seme.

And W. E. B. DuBois prophetically stated that the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line, and Africa has long been the clown of history, the football of anthropology, and the slave industry.

We must be attentive to the alarm of Carter Godwin Woodson, the mis-education of the Negros and Fela Anikulapo warnings, teacher don’t teach me nonsense, an education without interrogation.

We should remember the writings of Yosef Ben-Jochannan’s Africa the mother of western civilization, and Cheikh Anta Diop’s Africa Origin of Civilization.

And Dr. John Henrik Clarke’s famous quote on religion, anytime someone says your God is ugly and you release your God and join their god, there is no hope for your freedom until you once more believe in your own concept of God. However, Africa spirituality forms the fundamental pillars of all aspects of our societies, as Joshua Maponga III also contended.

Marcus Garvey believed that all Africans in the diaspora should return to their rightful homeland — Africa. And Dr. Kwame N’Krumah proclaimed resoundingly; that the survival of Africa can only be achieved by United Africa, in his 1963 OAU speech. Likewise, Amílcar Cabral, Patrice Lumumba, Samora Machel, and Frantz Fanon were strong advocates of African unity. On the other hand, Muammar Gaddafi played a significant role in the transformation of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) into the African Union (AU). And as the head of the African Union (AU), Muammar Gaddafi was resolute that Africa’s power lies in its unity — One Africa (United States of Africa).

Bob Marley reminded us to guard against mental slavery, and the liberation of the consciousness of our mind is a must, to change the course of Africa’s history.

Nevertheless, Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao opened the French pandora box, revealing the sustainability of the French economy by the francophone African countries. While Professor Patrick Loch Otieno Lumumba (PLO) eloquently urges us to seize this opportunity and make our mark as a people in this 21st Century. In essence, PLO was advising Africa not to miss this window of opportunity to make a change for the 21st century. And I preached that the way forward for the 21st century Africa is to re-define herself on the world stage and not by any foreign religious salvation.

Although most eastern and western world sees negative media depictions of Africa as a land of social, economic, and political failures, instabilities, and sufferings, Africa is a huge continent rich in natural mineral resources, human capital, and underdeveloped opportunities. Roughly 1.3 billion Africans reside on the continent, while an additional 400 million of her children live in the diaspora. What a resounding powerhouse of people!

Despite the negativities, Africa is the motherland of humanity, a continent of extraordinary beauty and endless fascination.

So far, Africa has not seen reasons to aggressively campaign to redefine, repackage herself, and sell herself to the world. These can be attributed to African leaders’ unfamiliarity with the power of imagery and public relations or the fear of retribution from the colonial interests in the status quo Africa.

However, I applaud new Africa’s consciousness and efforts in repackaging Africa. A strategy I called “Africa Re-Defined”, a new way forward for the 21st century.

And according to Professor Patrick Loch Otieno Lumumba (PLO), We must refuse to be known as the Continent that never misses an opportunity to miss an opportunity.

In this new world order, Africa cannot afford to be waiting for handouts from the east or west, Africa must start promoting herself in earnest, a move that will undoubtedly create opportunities for her many children. I have religiously preached this reasoning to Africa for over 30 years, and it is time to challenge the contradictions of the colonial interventions in Africa. And I have been a strong advocate that the way out for Africa is to create her unique marketing strategies geared towards the new world order (a media house).

Nevertheless, it is Africa’s responsibility to promote her image in the new dawn. And who can best develop Africa’s image rather than her many children scattered all over the world? These are the people I called the “ambassadors” in your backyard. However, it is necessary to use these ambassadors to promote, redefine, and repackage Africa for the new dawn. The diaspora understanding of Africa, skills, cultural know-how, personal interest, and enthusiasm uniquely position them to help facilitate and promote Africa for the new dawn. They are dedicated and have the best interest of Africa in mind, and they understand the significances of the positive image of Africa on the world stage.

Their expertise and understanding of these countries’ perceptions of Africa will clear the paths to strategize a comprehensive redefining and repackaging for Africa. Beyond all else, they understand these perceptions, can anticipate, overcome culture, tradition, life, and business style, that can help elevate the image of Africa for the new dawn.

Although many African countries have begun opting for selective eastern and western styles for tackling political, economic, and social problems, lifestyle changes have created vast African market opportunities for anyone with quality products and services.  Yet, African countries refused to use these ambassadors as tools to answer these pressing progenies.

New strategies must constantly be formulated, implemented to meet the needs and demands of tomorrow’s marketplace.

However, before Africa can successfully implement the repackaging strategy, and sell herself to the world, she must undo the effects of colonialism and eliminate the residue of the colonial brainwash. Hence, Africa must first make the necessary conscious internal efforts to change and sanitize her home, while simultaneously eradicating the ruminates of colonialism, when implementing the new media strategies.

Furthermore, James Baldwin made a passing reference, not everything that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed until it is faced. Africa is facing new dawn in world history, and must not miss the golden opportunity to change and make her mark for the 21st century.

It is better to follow even the shadow of the best than to remain content with the worst.

Here are some recommendations for the media strategy that requires some internal changes, which will help facilitate and affect the new image campaign. These suggested recommendations are not limited to only these ten: Beauty & Hair Care, Diaspora Relocation Assistance, Education, Governance, Health & Medicine, Judicial,Languages, Names, Religion and Technology — Internet Accessibility.

  • Beauty & Hair Care

The African woman is the epitome of beauty, God’s best creation. However, African women need to redefine their concept of beauty in the context of Africa and self-esteem, and not from the Eurocentric perspectives. Huberta Jackson-Lowman posits that perhaps the most insidious effect of white supremacy racism has been its impact on how people of color view their physical appearance.

As a psychoanalyst, and in his book Black Skins White Masks to analyze the psychology of colonialism, Fantz Fanon examines how the colonizer internalizes colonialism and its attendant ideologies, and how colonized peoples, in turn, internalize the idea of their   own inferiority and ultimately come to emulate their oppressors. Thus, racism functions as a controlling mechanism that maintains colonial relations as ‘natural’ occurrences.

After centuries of being brainwashed to believe the fairer-skinned are superior and should, therefore, be more favored, particularly if their facial features mimic Eurocentric ideals of beauty, has had a rippling effect — Fumi Fetto.

Most of the hair care products purchase and used in Africa are imported from countries such as India and China. According to Statista.com, the Asia Pacific region has the largest market for hair care in the world. And the global haircare market value amounted to about $85.5B in 2017 and is expected to grow to $102B by 2024.

Catherine Saint Louis noted that throughout the Caribbean, Africa, and in the United States, the devastating effects of skin bleaching, can be seen in the faces of women whose skin though lighter, exhibits thinning, and who are requiring dermatological treatment to deal with the destructive health effects of skin bleaching.

  • Diaspora Relocation Assistance Program

When reasonable basic infrastructures are in place, many Africans in the diaspora will be incentivized to come back home — Africa, which will undoubtedly lead to knowledge and technology transfer. The proposed five-year special relocation incentives or program should include but not limited to the followings:

  • Housing and personal effects
  • Education
  • Health
  • Special Business Funding
  • Tax Breaks (Business & Personal)
  • SMB/SBA New Business Support Programs
  • Other additional appealing incentives (country specifics)

Imagine how many Africans in the diaspora that would return with their entrepreneurial spirits, talents, know-how, to stimulate and rejuvenate the economies of the continent, coupled with the rich African cultures and people. These are the future architects of Africa’s developments, their diversities of knowledge from around the world, to be harnessed in Africa, imagine the possibilities? The improved infrastructure will also help reduce the brain drain from Africa.

Colonial Germany set a historical partner of racism and discrimination against dark-skinned people in Africa and the African diaspora, that some feel continues, unfortunately, down to this very day — Firpo W. Carr Ph.D.

  • Education

Education without interrogation and intelligence is an immense progeny in Africa. For example, roughly 4% to 6% of Nigerians in the US have PhDs/Doctorate degrees, higher than any groups, and South Africa leads the continent with the highest PhDs/Doctorates. Despite all these academicians, Africa has not seen any reason to reverse the colonial imposed academic systems that failed Africa.

Why should our literacy competencies be based on foreign languages? How many countries in Europe use other languages for their literacy standards, no matter how small the country? The West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), should be abolished, it has outlived its usefulness. Each country in that council should set its own standard high school examination, independent of other countries.

History of Africa should be taught from elementary to the university level, particularly the effects of slavery, colonialism, and corruption.  Courses on corruption and its effects on the continent should be offered and emphasized from kindergarten to university levels. Why study the geography of North America, and not study the geography of North Africa in our school system? Unfortunately, and likewise, most Africans are not taught the history of their country or Africa. Instead, they study and glorify the history of Europe, while neglecting their history.

More degrees should be offered for African history and languages, instead of degrees in English, French, and other worthless languages without added impact or significance to the development of Africa. Practical vocational and technical institutions should be developed, rather than theoretical academics. Africa should be proud of her diversity of languages, and they can be harness for open source software and apps developments that will facilitate technology development within the continent.

  • Governance

Plato warned that the punishment suffered by the wise who refuse to take part in the government, is to live under the government of bad men. All political power is inherent in the people, and accountability is the core of any democratic system, which is based on elected officials working on behalf of the people — their constituents. Africans deserve better. Africa has enormous natural resources, and human capital unparalleled to other continents. Foreign forms of governance are not conducive for Africa, they do not put our cultural settings and values into consideration, likewise they are not sustainable. How can small countries like Malawi, The Gambia, Eritrea, Togo, Kingdom of Lethoso, Swaziland and Benin support a democratic or parliamentarian system of governance?

What Africa needs are officials, both elected and appointed, who are dedicated and accountable to the citizens they are required to serve by law.  According to Peter Obi, a former governor in Nigeria stated: what the society allowed them (politicians) to abuse today will take revenge on us tomorrow. Accountability has the potential to transform government and put political power back in the hands of masses — not politicians.  Thus, wise men who refuse to do anything, suffer under the rules of idiots. If all Africans determine to hold their public officials accountable, Africa will be a prosperous, peaceful, and harmonious continent.

It is time for change in governance in Africa, hold elected officials accountable to             transform government, and put power back in the hands of people.

  • Health and Medicine

Africa should have eradicated malaria, sickle cell, and tuberculosis from the continent by now, instead of waiting to the east or west. According to the World Malaria Report 2019,sub-Saharan Africa accounted for approximately 93% of all malaria cases and 94% of deaths in 2018. More than two-thirds of deaths were among children under the age of five. The World Health Organisation (WHO) warned that the number of deaths caused by malaria in sub-Saharan Africa could double to 769,000 in 2020.

Africa must understand that the east or west is mainly interested in diseases that affect their race and continent. Africa should question their medical interventions or interests in Africa, because of their history for medical abuse and neglect. We cannot forget the famous syphilis research experimentation on African Americans and in Guatemala; because their goals are for their safety and profits.

Africa must develop her pharmaceutical R&D and manufacturing facilities for security reasons and stop depending on the west or east for medicines. Instead, Africa should also encourage and harmonized standards for herbal medicines within the countries and across the continent. We have all the natural cures and remedies to cure Africa and beyond.

  • Judicial

The imposed judicial system is not conducive to the African cultural systems. The old fashion judicial wigs and gowns have out grown their usefulness. It is time for change and the change is now. Our judicial gowns or representations should reflect Africa and not the colonial intervention. The whole judicial systems should be reformed to reflect Africa, not Spain, England, America, or France. However, we can harness the best parts and incorporated them with our cultural settings. Africa needs a reformed judicial system to reflect 21st century Africa.

  • Languages

Research and studies indicated that the mother tongue (thinking language) is the best instructional language, an enabler that facilitates better learning, understanding, and transfer of knowledge. Colonial languages should be phased out and no longer used as the standard to measure literacy in Africa. Africa should be proud of her diversity of languages.

Africa should use major languages of their country as the instructional language; however, they should also teach other major languages alongside the instructional language of the locality. The colonial languages should be an elective, if at all offered. This will finally lead to developing a new lingua franca for the country, just like Sawhili is used in eastern and southern Africa.

Language is not inherent in humans; it is a learned process. We can develop a new lingua franca for Africa to facilitate commerce, development, and harmony.

  • Names

Places such as Victoria Falls, which the people call Mosi-oa-Tunya, the smoke that thunders on the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe, and likewise Victoria Island in Lagos, Nigeria. When and how did Victoria own lakes and islands in Africa? They ought to be reverted to their original African names.

Are there any islands or falls in the colonial countries named or called by African names?  Africa needs redirection of her thinking, mindset, and should free herself from the destructive colonial mentality.

Africa ought and must erase all the colonial indoctrination from her psyche to forge a new beginning for the 21st century. Africa should think and must think like leaders rather than have the enclosure of the mindset, names like Nollywood should be changed as well. Nigerian movies industry should be a leader and not a follower of Hollywood. Every European country name their movies industry their own creation, yet for Nigeria movie industry to be relevant, it has to associated or align with Hollywood by naming her movie industry “Nolly-wood”. What a disgrace?  Leaders always behave like leaders; Africa should develop the leadership mentality or mindset in all its endeavors for the new dawn.

  • Religion

If foreign religions are the answers to Africa’s colonialization challenges, then what are the questions? How are foreign religious salvations relevant to the answers to the questions of colonialism, social issues, instabilities, economic and political failures in Africa?

We are children of superior religions and Gods. Thus, Africa should develop their indigenous religions, package it, and sell it to the world like other religions. We should export our superior Gods to the world, instead of worshipping imported religions or gods. Why settle for foreign gods in our land?

If these foreign religions offered a better place other than this earth as they claimed, how come the so-called religious leaders have not gone there to get a better life? This absolute brainwash of the foreign religions, the opium of the poor, failed Africa.

Every group of people should worship the Gods of their imaginations and representations. After all, God is an exaggeration worship of the cultural self.  The Bible or Torah and the Quran is a collection of religiously authoritative texts or books, a documentary hypothesis. After all, every religion is about morality and ethics, an elaborate system of worship and levels of discipline which imposed dos and don’ts on the activities of humanity concerning nature. Religions are different roads converging upon the same point. What does it matter that we take different roads so long we reach the same point — The words of Gandhi. Africa has superior religions and Gods, worship your Gods, and be content.

  • Technology — Internet Accessibility 

Internet accessibility and affordability should be a human right in Africa. Internet technology is a game changer and should be deplored in all aspects of life on the continent. The 21st century is a knowledge-based society or economy and is no longer limited to any geographical area. However, affordability and accessibility are the keys to develop and harness the full potential of the technologies.

Internet cost is far too expensive in Africa, Nigeria has the highest cost for accessibility in the world. The high cost limits people’s ability to harness the power of internet technology possibilities. Make Internet more accessible, affordable and open to accelerate development, says New World Bank Report. Why outsource our technological needs to India, if the cost of housing the technology is made affordable and reliable? Imagine the number of jobs it will create on the continent? Affordable high-speed connectivity facilitates and accelerates business development, innovation, expansion, e-commerce, it creates wealth and new opportunities by attracting businesses that want to relocate to areas with a strong and connectivity presence.

The future is creativity, innovation, and technology. Why has Africa not developed her social media apps or platform to rival Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or Tiktok? Africa should innovate, develop, support, and buy technologies made in Africa.

The ultimate goal of the redefining strategy is to create, own, and operate a continental (African) media house. We recommend all African countries to contribute a minimum of half a billion dollars towards the creation of the continental media house that will rival CNN, RT, France24, and Al Jazeera.

The personnel should include Africans, African Americans, and Afro Brazilians media gurus, with the HQ located in any African country, and housed in the US and Brazil, with branches all over the world. We also advocate a name from any African linguistics, meaning Truth or Telling Our Stories. This media house will tell the world our stories and to correct any negativities about Africa.

Linguistic diversities define Africa as one of the most linguistically diverse continents. It has roughly estimated 2,000 different spoken languages, divided into four major categories which include: Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo, and Khoe. I am very confident that we can formulate or create a name from those 2,000 languages for the media house. Hence, we do not need any foreign names for the media house.

We are gods in the body of God, truth and love our destinies. Go then and make of the world something beautiful, set up a light in the darkness — Awakening Osiris; The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Normandi Ellis.

In conclusion, will Africa ever rise again? Yes, there has to be a re-thinking and re-birth, only when she becomes Africa all over again, The New Africa of the 21st century. Thus, the world is changing; Africa must change her thinking, and think anew, act anew.

God Bless Africa!

154 comments

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  • “All the countries with colonial imposed names should change their names to reflect the new Africa.”
    reclaim African identity as opposed to colonial slave master, and their descendant’s delusions and fantasies. Free the continent.

    “However, Africa spirituality forms the fundamental pillars of all aspects of our societies, as Joshua Maponga III also contended.”
    that’s why it was suppressed, criminalized and totally banned particularly in the Caribbean, where it was calculatingly and completely wiped from most African memories.

    “And I preached that the way forward for the 21st century Africa is to re-define herself on the world stage and not by any foreign religious salvation.”
    colonial false religion must be stripped from the Continent, it’s a total disgrace and increasingly destructive to the African mind.

    “or the fear of retribution from the colonial interests in the status quo Africa.”
    in the face of the pending annihilation of Africans to steal resources, that’s cowardice, very unattractive.

    “Yet, African countries refused to use these ambassadors as tools to answer these pressing progenies.”
    participating in their own continued downfall, weakness. Get that automatic citizenship for the Diaspora in gear or lose out again, this time permanently.

    “History of Africa should be taught from elementary to the university level, particularly the effects of slavery, colonialism, and corruption”
    that stubborn refusal by backward governments in the Caribbean has done irreversible damage to the older African minds, resulting in permanent slavehood, irreversible mental damage.

    “the most insidious effect of white supremacy racism has been its impact on how people of color view their physical appearance.”
    the negative effects of self-hate, destroying one’s beauty for the fraudulent colonial concept of beauty which is beastly.

    “Africa should question their medical interventions or interests in Africa, because of their history for medical abuse and neglect.”
    reject all colonial experiments.
    .
    “Thus, wise men who refuse to do anything, suffer under the rules of idiots.”
    Barbados and the Caribbean are prime examples, the elected are rulers and jailers, not real leadership, pretenders.

    “the whole judicial systems should be reformed ”
    all colonial influences and slave laws, because that is what they continue to be, should be permanently taken out of statue books, they remain a plague in the lives of Africans everywhere..

    “the smoke that thunders on the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe, and likewise Victoria Island in Lagos, Nigeria. When and how did Victoria own lakes and islands in Africa? They ought to be reverted to their original African names.”
    all contrived colonial names should be cut out of the African landscape.

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  • not a bad piece at all. i would only add that Rwanda should have been cited as an African nation that is making positive strives.

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  • I have nothing to add.

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  • It is good to hear from a Nigerian scholar who is prepared to admit that it was the sons and daughters of slaves from the diaspora who were the disciples and leaders of Pan Africanism. Their legacy remains an indelible footprint in the political and social struggle of the black man and woman wherever they may exist. They were the international vanguard of our intellectual development.

    It is poignant and terribly sad that when an African, primarily Nigerians, intersects with blacks outside of Africa that they seldom refer to them as “slave babies” and are privately and publicly disrespectful towards them. They question their pedigree as if they are lesser beings.

    The ease with which an African migrant can survive outside of Africa in countries such as the UK or the USA is due, primarily, to their “slave” brothers and sisters and their ancestors.

    We talk about a united Africa and its diaspora coming together. Yet, Waru has stated that African countries have never opened their doors to their prodigal off-springs in the form of permanent residence and citizenship. Which, quite frankly, is the least they owe to their abandoned people.

    AFRICAN countries have never had a United world Congress meeting with those from the diaspora to discuss their role in the slave trade and the awful legacy left behind. What suggestions do these countries have to make ammends for their foolish historical misjudgement of being facilitators to the awful slave trade?

    The good doctor’s post is substantial and welcomed. It is mother Africa that has to look at itself and address this situation square on in order for Africa and her diaspora to finally be reunited.

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  • Ghana has an open black returnee policy and i believe Rwanda has one too. i dont believe there are many restrictions on any black people returning to live in any part of black Africa.

    yes Nigerians are known for their treatment of blacks in the diaspora but even that is changing

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  • Terrible news out of Liberia. Four high ranking auditors have met their deaths within an eight day period after having completed a high profile investigation.

    Their President – George Weah, the legendary footballer, has asked the Americans to investigate the case.

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  • Times are obviously getting TOUGH, BLACK countries worldwide are in FULL COLONIAL BLAME MODE in an attempt to obscure their incompetent management and populace subservant attitudes. This author is using LENGTHY VERBAL DIAHREAI articles in a failed attempt to cover up FAILED, CORRUPT, INCOMPETENT political country management.

    Food for thought.

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  • @Wily Coyote October 13, 2020 9:34 AM

    We should not lump all sub-Saharan Africa together here. Some countries are much better off because their governments successfully fight corruption and follow a development strategy.

    These countries have a much higher GDP than Barbados, which is currently around USD 5,000 per capita without our so-called economic gods (= tourists and expats). With the current restrictive Covid19-immigration policy, we may safely write off the winter season in tourism.

    Time for our beloved government to take up my suggestion from March and start my STARVE program. We need a wage cap of 10 USD for all civil servants, workers and employees in order to adjust their expectations to the economic reality. The self-employed, entrepreneurs and expats are of course excluded from this.

    By the way: I see a huge mortgage catastrophe coming up. The banks can’t wait until next summer for our natives to think of paying their debts again.

    This winter season we are faced with the choice of either crashing economically or moderately adjusting the overly strict Corona regime at the airport. Those who have a test that is no more than three days old should be allowed to go to the beach immediately. We might test again after days. However, the forced quarantine for 90 (!) percent of our tourists will kill everything, especially our mortgage debtors.

    Furthermore the criteria are idiotically contradictory. Travelers from China and New Zealand have to switch planes in London or Frankfurt in medium and high risk areas. I don’t understand why these travelers aren’t upgraded on risk.

    I already see debtors in chains, sold and on their way to Saudi Arabia as house- and field-servants (of course only metaphorical, as an explanation for the PC police on BU …).

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  • The president speaks!

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  • @ TLSN October 13, 2020 7:46 AM
    “Terrible news out of Liberia. Four high ranking auditors have met their deaths within an eight day period after having completed a high profile investigation.
    Their President – George Weah, the legendary footballer, has asked the Americans to investigate the case.”
    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    Isn’t this a classic case of:
    “Quis custodiet ipsos custodes” (Who will guard the guards)?

    Liked by 1 person

  • The explosion of the black diaspora out of Africa
    followed by the implosion of people back to Africa
    seems wholly copacetic and a spiritual sense of purpose

    why settle for an island when you can have a whole continent, but freedom of movement means you can also work and live in two cultures or many others if your heart desires, or you can go back to where you prefer, all options are available

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  • de pedantic Dribbler

    @David re “Malcolm X met with KKK leaders to discuss the creation of a black state, new book claims”

    A new book… but old news nonetheless in many ways! The same was noted of Marcus Garvey, yes!

    It makes sense even if not PRATICAL reasoning that it (separate Black homeland) would ever work… a reason why ANY extremism is often an invalid concept!

    The issues of Liberia noted above and the ‘Garveyistic’ nature of its creation is a sad lesson… NOT suggesting that a Black led nation is impractical or cannot thrive… NO… but obviously we can’t exist in this world in a simplistic ‘monolithic’ one race or one DOMINANT race model!

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  • de pedantic Dribbler

    To clarify: It makes sense that either and both of those gentlemen would have those KKK meetings based on their strident Black self-help and need for Blacks to be ascend to self-rule!

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  • @Dee Word

    At that time it probably was the reality for black people.

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  • I have stated before that KKK was the local Government, Police and Community etc

    You needed to run things past them to avoid lynchings etc

    also Malcolm, Marcus and KKK had same goal in common in the case of Black Repatriation

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  • @ Tron October 13, 2020 9:48 AM

    Greetings.

    I’m in favor 90 percent. However, can you elaborate on de ten percent.

    “We need a wage cap of 10 USD for all civil servants, workers and employees in order to adjust their expectations to the economic reality”.

    Is this an hourly cut across the board???

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  • That Trump quote says it all. The Native American narrative did not count. One narrative mattered then and now – the European narrative. Same as the Winston Churchill quote.

    White supremacy. Their way of life is superior and so all other cultures should simply give way.

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  • Rwandan genocide. Who’s responsible. Germany, Belgium
    or the international community?

    On April 6, 1994, a plane carrying Habyarimana and Burundi’s president Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down over the capital city of Kigali, leaving no survivors. (It has never been conclusively determined who the culprits were. Some have blamed Hutu extremists, while others blamed leaders of the RPF.)

    Within an hour of the plane crash, the Presidential Guard, together with members of the Rwandan armed forces (FAR) and Hutu militia groups known as the Interahamwe (“Those Who Attack Together”) and Impuzamugambi (“Those Who Have the Same Goal”), set up roadblocks and barricades and began slaughtering Tutsis and moderate Hutus with impunity.

    Among the first victims of the genocide were the moderate Hutu Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana and 10 Belgian peacekeepers, killed on April 7. This violence created a political vacuum, into which an interim government of extremist Hutu Power leaders from the military high command stepped on April 9. The killing of the Belgium peacekeepers, meanwhile, provoked the withdrawal of Belgium troops. And the U.N. directed that peacekeepers only defend themselves thereafter.

    Slaughter Spreads Across Rwanda

    The mass killings in Kigali quickly spread from that city to the rest of Rwanda. In the first two weeks, local administrators in central and southern Rwanda, where most Tutsi lived, resisted the genocide. After April 18, national officials removed the resisters and killed several of them. Other opponents then fell silent or actively led the killing. Officials rewarded killers with food, drink, drugs and money. Government-sponsored radio stations started calling on ordinary Rwandan civilians to murder their neighbors. Within three months, some 800,000 people had been slaughtered.

    Meanwhile, the RPF resumed fighting, and civil war raged alongside the genocide. By early July, RPF forces had gained control over most of country, including Kigali.

    In response, more than 2 million people, nearly all Hutus, fled Rwanda, crowding into refugee camps in the Congo (then called Zaire) and other neighboring countries.

    After its victory, the RPF established a coalition government similar to that agreed upon at Arusha, with Pasteur Bizimungu, a Hutu, as president and Paul Kagame, a Tutsi, as vice president and defense minister.

    Habyarimana’s NRMD party, which had played a key role in organizing the genocide, was outlawed, and a new constitution adopted in 2003 eliminated reference to ethnicity. The new constitution was followed by Kagame’s election to a 10-year term as Rwanda’s president and the country’s first-ever legislative elections.

    International Response

    As in the case of atrocities committed in the former Yugoslavia around the same time, the international community largely remained on the sidelines during the Rwandan genocide.

    A United Nations Security Council vote in April 1994 led to the withdrawal of most of a U.N. peacekeeping operation (UNAMIR), created the previous fall to aid with governmental transition under the Arusha accord.

    As reports of the genocide spread, the Security Council voted in mid-May to supply a more robust force, including more than 5,000 troops. By the time that force arrived in full, however, the genocide had been over for months.

    In a separate French intervention approved by the U.N., French troops entered Rwanda from Zaire in late June. In the face of the RPF’s rapid advance, they limited their intervention to a “humanitarian zone” set up in southwestern Rwanda, saving tens of thousands of Tutsi lives but also helping some of the genocide’s plotters – allies of the French during the Habyarimana administration – to escape.

    In the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide, many prominent figures in the international community lamented the outside world’s general obliviousness to the situation and its failure to act in order to prevent the atrocities from taking place.

    As former U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali told the PBS news program Frontline: “The failure of Rwanda is 10 times greater than the failure of Yugoslavia. Because in Yugoslavia the international community was interested, was involved. In Rwanda nobody was interested.”

    Attempts were later made to rectify this passivity. After the RFP victory, the UNAMIR operation was brought back up to strength; it remained in Rwanda until March 1996, as one of the largest humanitarian relief efforts in history.

    Did you know? In September 1998, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) issued the first conviction for genocide after a trial, declaring Jean-Paul Akayesu guilty for acts he engaged in and oversaw as mayor of the Rwandan town of Taba.

    Rwandan Genocide Trials

    In October 1994, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), located in Tanzania, was established as an extension of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) at The Hague, the first international tribunal since the Nuremburg Trials of 1945-46, and the first with the mandate to prosecute the crime of genocide.

    In 1995, the ICTR began indicting and trying a number of higher-ranking people for their role in the Rwandan genocide; the process was made more difficult because the whereabouts of many suspects were unknown.

    The trials continued over the next decade and a half, including the 2008 conviction of three former senior Rwandan defense and military officials for organizing the genocide.

    Like

  • “Rwandan genocide. Who’s responsible”

    A TV program “Black Earth Rising” summarised the conflict as between English speaking Hutu 85% and French speaking Tutsis 14% (1% Twa), although Hutu were subjugated to Tutsis who ran the Government speaking French. (Although both speak a common language Bantu) but the nation is now switching to English as it is more accessible with it’s neighbours and other countries for trade.

    Like

  • Oh dear me! Here they come! The usual suspects.

    Africans are human and have their share of wickedness. But anyone who thinks that slavery, colonization and white supremacy have had no effect on the development of Africans is just a white man doing what white men do (and for the usual reasons) or a black man trying to appear as “enlightened” as the white man (also for the usual reasons).

    It is simply not possible for these long lasting, brutal and psychologically damaging negative occurrences to have had no lingering negative effect. Especially when we KNOW that it was DESIGNED to have one.

    How long ago did it end? How long did it last?

    A Bajan judge used to say about weekends that two days cannot undo what five days have done. In other words, working for five days and resting two would result in residual tiredness.

    Well, two hundred years cannot undo what four hundred years have done, especially when the system is still rigged towards white supremacy.

    What the Europeans did in lumping tribes together to form artificial countries cannot be discounted. Africa was not allowed to evolve naturally but was forced into a European mould.

    Like

  • “Well, two hundred years cannot undo what four hundred years have done, especially when the system is still rigged towards white supremacy.”

    an appropriate idiom to use is..

    “if you starve a baby of oxygen, it becomes brain damaged”

    Like

  • AFRICA * 500 Years of Colonialism.

    The Angolan Civil War (1975-2002): A Brief History

    The overthrow of Portugal’s Prime Minister, Marcello Caetano, on 25 April 1974 hailed a watershed moment for the former Portuguese colonies of Mozambique, Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Principe and Angola. The Armed Forces Movement (AFM) had overthrown the dictatorship in a mostly bloodless coup, thereby ending Portuguese colonial rule in Africa.

    Thus, Angola attained official independence on 11 November 1975 and, while the stage was set for transition, a combination of ethnic tensions and international pressures rendered Angola’s hard-won victory problematic. As with many post-colonial states, Angola was left with both economic and social difficulties which translated into a power struggle between the three predominant liberation movements. The People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), formed in December of 1956 as an offshoot of the Angolan Communist Party, had as its support base the Ambundu people and was largely supported by other African countries, Cuba and the Soviet Union.

    The National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA), founded in 1962, was rooted among the Bakongo people and strongly supported the restoration and defence of the Kongo empire, eventually developing into a nationalist movement supported by the government of Zaire and (initially) the People’s Republic of China.

    The Ovimbundu people formed the base of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), which was established in 1966 and founded by a prominent former leader of the FNLA, Jonas Savimbi. After its hard-won independence, however, Angola faced a further potential catastrophe as the power-sharing agreement between the three rebel groups collapsed in 1975.

    Origins of the Conflict

    Ethnic Tensions

    A salient reason for the continuation of civil war after independence was a result of the reluctance of the dominant liberation movements to share power within a multi-ethnic society. Unlike former Portuguese colonies, the Angolan people fought their colonisers on three fronts. The MPLA called for a single united front of all anti-colonial Angolan forces, however its popular appeal was largely limited to the Mbundu – Angola’s second largest ethnic group – and the multiracial Mestiqos. The MPLA’s nationalist drive did not appeal to the Bakongo people, who rallied to militant right-wing FNLA leader, Holden Roberto’s, call for the reestablishment of the ancient Kingdom of Kongo in the north of Angola. FNLA supporters were largely rural and remained separated from colonial society, but suffered extensively from land dispossession under colonial authorities in the 1950s. The formation of UNITA in 1966 attracted the largest support base; the Ovimbundu ethnic group, although geographically fragmented, were largely integrated into colonial society, and used UNITA as a vehicle for opposing the ethnic groups supporting the FNLA and the MPLA.

    Thus, while a power-sharing arrangement was agreed upon after independence was secured, power struggles ensued almost immediately as the agreement collapsed. This was aggravated by the withdrawal of the Portuguese in 1975; refusing to impose peace or supervise elections, and failing to hand over power to any one party, the Portuguese armies exited Angola and left the country and its future to its own devices. It was here that the common anti-colonial goal was abandoned, and the three dominant liberation movements began a steady struggle for power. On August 1, 1975, UNITA formally declared war on the MPLA

    Much of the ethnic tension between the three warring factions was rooted in differing positions within colonial society prior to independence. Colonial rule resulted in the politicisation of ethnicity by combining and placing vastly differing ethnicities under one centrally administered colonial territory. Additionally, colonialism aggravated ethnic cleavages by introducing and imposing racial and class divisions. As mentioned, the FNLA and UNITA support base was largely drawn from rural communities who had been severely affected by colonial land dispossession. In fact, a frequent criticism of the MPLA by its two opposing movements was that its leadership was widely made up of Portuguese descendents and came from privileged socio-economic standings. This was not entirely incorrect, as MPLA leaders were often from urban areas and used class as an enduring element in their attempt to garner support from the emerging urban proletariat and intelligentsia.

    Ideologically speaking, the three movements were also at odds. While the MPLA initially espoused a Marxist-Leninist discourse and later switched to a social democratic model, the rural FNLA and UNITA were far more militant and right-wing, harbouring a distaste for the bourgeoisie MPLA supporters.

    The Resource Curse

    Angola spans around 481,226 square miles along the southwest coast of Africa, and is notably rich in mineral reserves, including oil, iron, copper, bauxite, diamonds and uranium. Angola’s resource wealth became a means of funding the ongoing war between the MPLA and UNITA, with both parties extensively exploiting the country’s oil and diamond reserves. During the years of civil war, UNITA was able to capture several major diamond mines (by capturing the areas of Lunda Sul and Lunda Norte Provinces) which served as a primary resource for financing arms and fuel, and funding the liberation movement’s guerrilla campaigns against the MPLA.

    With the approaching independence in 1975, each of the three major contenders began to secure Cold War patrons. The MPLA solicited the support of the Cubans who harboured a similar ideological stance, while UNITA was able to secure the support of the South African government. The United States sided with the increasingly inefficient FNLA, stationed in the north of Angola.

    A Brief Account of the Conflict

    Subsequent to the Portuguese withdrawal from Angola, the Cuban- and Soviet-backed MPLA had secured control of Luanda – Angola’s capital city – and declared itself as the new government of independent Angola. Bolstering its position was the fact that it had received support and recognition from several other African countries; in 1969 the Organisation for African Unity (OAU) referred to the MPLA as the only truly representative party of Angola, and in 1976 the MPLA was formally recognised by the OAU as the legitimate government of independent Angola. The period between 1975 and 1976 was characterised not only by the withdrawal of the Portuguese, but also by the arrival of Cuban forces and the South African invasion into Luanda. Additionally, this period saw the defeat of the FNLA and the rise of UNITA as challengers to the MPLA’s self-established rule.

    Subsequent to the Portuguese coup the FNLA’s internal support had already deteriorated considerably, although it maintained steady relations with Zaire and was thus well armed. This led the FNLA to attempt a forceful overthrow of the MPLA in Luanda, although the MPLA, backed by Cuba and the Soviet Union, deflected the onslaught and subsequently turned their antagonism towards UNITA. While the weakest in terms of military strength, UNITA harboured the greatest potential for electoral support, thus threatening the MPLA’s position of power. The FNLA and UNITA established a rival government in Huambo, pleading assistance from the South African forces to aid in ousting the MPLA. The MPLA retaliated with an influx of around 40,000 to 50,000 Cuban troops who succeeded in forcing out the internationally isolated South African troops, thus gaining control over the provincial capitals. The Cuban troops remained stationed in Angola as a means of maintaining stability and warding off further South African attacks. In 1977 the MPLA established itself firmly as a Marxist-Leninist party, pursuing a economic communism. The result of this, however, was disastrous, and Angola’s saving grace came in the form of its externally managed oil industry which prevented total economic and military collapse. The death of President Augustinho Neto in 1979 led to the inauguration of the MPLA’s former minister of planning, José Eduardo dos Santos.

    Thousands of people have taken to the streets of the Angolan capital Luanda to celebrate Thursday’s peace deal aimed at ending nearly 30 years of civil war.
    The march, organised by the “Spontaneous Movement,” a group close to President Jose Eduardo dos Santos, came as foreign governments welcomed the formal signing of the peace agreement between the government and Unita rebels.

    Unita Chief of Staff Gen. Geraldo Abreu Kamorteiro (l) and Angolan armed forces chief Gen. Armando da Cruz Neto (r) hug
    The two signatories embraced at the ceremony
    Previous peace efforts in Angola have failed, but the BBC’s Justin Pearce in Luanda says most Angolans are optimistic that this latest plan will work.

    Human rights campaigners told him however, that the ceasefire was only a first step which would not automatically lead to democracy, development and justice.

    And an independent journalist working in Angola, Raphael Marcques, cautioned that some people, who had benefited financially from the war, had a vested interest in maintaining the political and military tension of the past.

    The agreement opens the way to reconciliation among Angolans and general elections”

    Jorge Sampaio, Portuguese president
    Thousands of people, all dressed in white to symbolise peace, marched through the streets of Luanda dancing, drinking and celebrating the end of the war.

    “Peace, a victory for all the Angolan people,” some chanted.

    A US State Department spokesman, Philip Reeker, said Washington now looked forward to the full completion of the agreement and further steps to promote national reconciliation.

    He said the US was ready to assist in those efforts.

    The agreement includes a promise by the two sides to abide by a 1994 peace accord, which collapsed almost four years ago.

    ‘National rebirth’

    The ceasefire followed the death of Unita leader Jonas Savimbi, who was killed by government troops six weeks ago.

    It formally ends a civil war that has raged since Angola won independence from Portugal in 1975.

    An estimated 4,000 people applaud at the signing ceremony
    The Angolan president declared the war over
    Russia’s Foreign Ministry congratulated Angola on its “national rebirth” and British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw called the cease-fire a “historic step forward”.

    “This agreement should be the start of a sustainable political process through negotiation and dialogue, and no longer through violence and intimidation,” he said.

    Portuguese President Jorge Sampaio said the accord “opens the way to reconciliation among Angolans and general elections”.

    Ibrahaim Gambari, special representative of the United Nations in Angola, said it was a historic moment and promised the UN would continue its support for Angola’s peace plan.

    Unita commitment

    Unita chief of staff General Geraldo Abreu Kamorteiro and the head of Angola’s armed forces, General Armando da Cruz Neto, signed the agreement in the Angolan parliament building.

    On Friday, they began the work of demobilising Unita’s 50,000 fighters and reintegrating many of them into the national security forces.

    Angolan refugee children at transit centre
    Millions have been displaced by the years of fighting
    Some Angolans are encouraged by the fact that the process was conducted entirely by Angolans themselves, rather than by foreign mediators.

    Others believe that Jonas Savimbi was the principal driving force behind the war and that with him now dead, the chances of peace are better than ever before.

    Some observers say Unita’s army has been all but destroyed in the last few months.

    Unita fighters have been arriving in Luanda, saying that they deserted the rebel force because they had nothing to eat.

    Now here comes the Chinese…(African Natural Resources)…

    Like

  • @ Tony

    are you CIA

    Like

  • Keep counting alyuh billion and trillion dollar Reparations chickens…but first ya better get in line…

    .😂😂🤣🤣…that should send cousin Boris into a tizzy……the first peoples of the Americas are coming out and they want Reparations too…

    “Regardless of the circumstances of the ethnic dilution and cultural extinction of the Amerindians of Trinidad in the 19th century, the present day descendants of these first peoples, although bearing little resemblance to their ancestors of three or four centuries prior, have a powerful claim for reparations. The yeoman work done by the Santa Rosa Carib Community has served to revive many customs which were previously thought extinct because of the actions of the European colonial oppressors. A great deal of credit must be given to the current President of the community, Chief Ricardo Bharath Hernandez for ensuring that the issue of First Peoples affairs is not constantly relegated to the back burner of official policy. A simple way of reinforcing the reparations claim of the Arimians and indeed all descendants of First Peoples in the nation (and many of us are blissfully unaware that in our veins flows the blood of the Amerindians) would be to conduct DNA testing to prove a tangible link between the Arimians of the 18th century and those of today. Groundbreaking discoveries made during excavations on the site of the old Mission of Savana Grande in Princes Town by young antiquarian and historian Eric Lewis, have proven that archaeological evidence can be unearthed of the Mission era, particularly human remains. I have no doubt that under the floor of the Santa Rosa R.C Church, lies the footprint of the original mission chapel of 1786 wherein the chancel and aisles would have provided graves for some of the original inhabitants. This material can be used to create a scientifically verified link between those today whose long ancestry in the town would make them plausible descendants of the First Peoples whose compensatory rights to property were so rudely stolen by official sanction in 1849.

    In addition to genetic rights to inheritance, there is the issue of the cultural heritage of every person of indigenous descent which has so wonderfully been revived by the Carib Community. Although there has been much dialogue between the spokespersons for indigenous affairs and agents of the state, it is my conviction that serious progress will only be made when the separate identity of the First Peoples is recognized in the realm of public policy, and a separate bureau founded for the addressing of concerns and matters exclusively related to this cause. With due respect for the multi-ethnic and diverse national pantheon, it would be reprehensible for the government to continually treat native affairs with the scant courtesy that has characterized official involvement over the past years. Dominica has continually pointed the way forward with a Ministry of Carib Affairs being part of its parliamentary and executive structure. With a state functionary dedicated to representing in legislative and policy matters a systematic approach to the reparations claim of the descendants of the First Peoples can then be implemented. What is the price that is set on the centuries and decades of suppression and erasure that sought to eliminate altogether the unique identity of our First Peoples?”

    Like

  • Thank you, 555 and thank you, Tony.

    Like

  • God save Mia Amor Mottley QC, MP. Barbados Prime-Minister for life.

    Do we get an AMEN lads ???????

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  • Donna…regardless of who did what, everybody is now TURNED UP and want to get paid…..wuhloss….were i UK i would free the people especially from those slimy, corrupt, low grade nobody politicians……..that alone is worth its weight in trillion dollar reparations…lol

    Like

  • @ 555dubstreet

    I’m a Bajan Secondary high school drop out. I would think one has to have an MBA or PHD.

    The answer is definitely no.

    Like

  • @ Tron

    Where are you laddy ????

    Like

  • “What the Europeans did in lumping tribes together to form artificial countries cannot be discounted. Africa was not allowed to evolve naturally but was forced into a European mould.”

    they separated and divided cousins….bloodlines, just like they did in the Caribbean, long lasting damage that can only be reversed with the REMOVAL OF ALL BORDERS…

    i alone can find hundreds of cousins in each island and across the Diaspora, some are finding thousands all across the Americas

    Like

  • So how are they going to divvy up reparatioins when in truth and in fact, the first peoples were around first, even when Africans were travellig the seas for thousands of years, they found people who were already there on each island and country…unlike lying columbus the killer, thief murderer, rapist….

    so the Amerindians can kick everyone off the islands, it’s their original domain and the public officials love to pretend they don’t exist.

    Like

  • Miller…do you remember, we kept telling them that reparations in the form of money is an extremely bad idea, but the greedy tend only to listen to those who are just as greedy as they are so this the end result, where is Professor Shillary…

    Like

  • Tone
    I did a cut and paste + google and came up with a russian link
    http://peacekeeping-centre.in.ua/Museum/AngolaS/Articles/2002.htm

    Like

  • WURA-War-on-U

    The Inuits (eskimos) and South American and Native American tribes have a claim to USA as do all the migrants immigrants coming from South of the Border due to lack of food resources from Global warming in their countries. They did not come to Americas they were always there before the Europeans.

    Like

  • @ 555

    The Russian link was obvious. The Cubans were there.

    Like

  • Take a hard look @ Pfizer stocks for the short-term Lads.

    New Zealand signs deal with Pfizer-BioNTech for 1.5 million coronavirus vaccines
    The government did not disclose financial terms of the deal which will provide enough doses to vaccinate 750,000 people.

    The New Zealand government signed a deal on Monday to buy 1.5 million Covid-19 vaccines from Pfizer Inc and Germany’s BioNTech, with delivery potentially as early as the first quarter of 2021.

    The government did not disclose financial terms of the deal, its first vaccine purchase, which will provide enough doses to vaccinate 750,000 people.

    Officials said talks were continuing with other drug companies to secure more vaccine supplies for the country of 5 million people and further announcements were expected next month.

    “The additional agreements will ensure that once the portfolio is completed, we will have sufficient Covid-19 vaccines for the whole population,” Research Minister Megan Woods said in a statement.

    The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is one of the leading candidates in the race to be the first to get regulatory approval in the United States and Europe.

    New Zealand appeared to have stamped out community transmission of Covid-19 earlier this year following a tough nationwide lockdown. A renewed outbreak in the city of Auckland in August was also brought under control with fresh lockdown measures.

    The country has reported just over 1,500 cases, including 25 deaths, far less than most other developed nations.

    Like

  • 555…the reparationist have no clue what they are stepping into….lol…ah wonder which century they are planning to get PAID IN…3030….4060…..and ah hope they know they will be STUPID to think UK will tief from Africa to PAY THEM….😂😂🤣🤣😂🤣🤣🤣…fools, ah told them when Harry was on the island that there are some things MUCH MORE IMPORTANT THAN PAPER MONEY…..dummies…..

    we are Africans and we have all the tools necessary to UTILIZE OUR ANCESTRAL BIRTHRIGHT…but no, the greedy politicians etc, want to run behind reparations money that does not exist UNLESS STOLEN FROM AFRICA…🤣😂😂. Elizabeth needs to bag her snakes…

    “Britain will still be borrowing nearly £100 billion a year and debt will be on a perilous upward spiral at the end of the present parliament as the state shoulders the cost of rebuilding the economy after the pandemic, the International Monetary Fund has warned.

    In its latest world economic outlook, the organisation upgraded UK growth this year but set out a stark longer-term forecast for the public finances. In 2025, Britain will still be borrowing 4.4 per cent of GDP, equivalent to £95 billion, and the debt will have jumped from 85 per cent of national income in 2019 to 107 per cent, a level not seen since the end of the 1950s.”

    Like

  • Pfizer*

    The US federal government has allocated more than $9 billion to develop and manufacture candidate vaccines. More than $2.5 billion more has been earmarked for vials to store the vaccines, syringes to deliver them, and on efforts to ramp up manufacturing and capacity.

    And they’re not done yet.

    So far, the largest sums have gone to pharmaceutical giants Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and a collaboration between Sanofi and GSK, as well as biotech firms Moderna and Novavax – all of which have candidate vaccines being tested in people.

    Like

  • The doctor mentioned that the African continent should have its own robust central media platform.

    Aljazeera has just released an explosive investigative documentary that has prompted an immediate response: Cyprus abolishes citizenship through investment programme.

    https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/10/13/cyprus-abolishes-citizenship-through-investment-programme

    Like

  • @ WURA-War-on-U
    “the reparationist have no clue what they are stepping into”

    I am an advocate for reparations although I am not a beneficiary

    I look at is my purpose for blogging as well as the promotion of roots and culture

    Like

  • Am all for reparations….BUT NOT IN THE FORM OF PAPER…people need to look at the overall picture and stop being so greedy …while making long lists of how they will spend money derived from their ancestor’s misery …the resources of which will have to come from the Continent anywat, where else will they get it, unless they print useless paper and give it out to those salivating for paper, but it must be backed up with something and that something has to come from Africa…that is where all the resources are…….no colonizer country is going to dip into their savings to pay Shillary and stay broke so he can swell with false pride…….what is wrong with you people…steupse…

    Like

  • “ Airbnb IPO”

    It’s been leaked that the company also expects to raise $3 billion, with its IPO at a $30 valuation.

    Like

  • Sport is an excellent medium that brings nations closer together. Just imagine a world football tournament that pitched Black nations and those from the diaspora in direct competition. Imagine a team of Afro Colombians trouncing Nigeria in a final in Kingston, Jamaica.

    This could easily be extended to athletics where black competitors tend to medal more than other racial groups. Such a competition would gain world wide coverage and should be financially viable.

    Let sport be the starting point in opening up relationships between the continent and the African diaspora.

    Like

  • “…while making long lists of how they will spend money derived from their ancestor’s misery ”

    Look at it as a legacy to pass onto your descendants
    Wealth is accumulative, the resources from slavery and colonialism was used to fund UK’s industry and industrial revolution, producing goods with ‘added value’ to be sold for profits globally, likewise reparations paid to slave owners was used for altruistic purposes like building universities and railroads and research and development and so on. Monied people passed it onto their children who reaped the privilege of being wealthy in properties and assets before even starting their working careers.
    As Hants? once said Reparations are just the back pay for hard labour and field work overdue.
    You have the DNA of 7 generations of your ancestors before you in your tissues as well as the memories of their pain and your DNA is passed onto 7 generations of your descendants after you.

    Like

  • “Look at it as a legacy to pass onto your descendants”

    and whose hands do you think those greedy, corrupt sellout politicians are going to put it in, whose hands and bank accounts have they been puttiing the PEOPLE’S MONEY in for the last 60 years….and that was tens of billions of dollars…look at the condition of the island and a large cross section of the exploited, oppressed and criminalized population.

    Besides…there is a GREATER LEGACY IN EXISTENCE…use ya brain…

    it’s not me ya have to convince 555…it’s those who will do ANYTHING TO AVOID PAYING…..reparations.

    am sure it’s you posted here that it’s a good idea to get reparations and let LLoyds invest it….right back in slave master’s hands….yall are special…

    Like

  • I was speaking from a collateral wealth fund management perspective for a global trust fund as trustees for beneficiaries which industries can invest in for pensions etc. as well as Receivership of Reparations funds from Corporations that made wealth from Slave Trade etc. UK and US banking is established to manage global funds although Barbados has experience in financial services too.
    A reparations fund would be ethical investing for black communities development and growth projects and could invest in black businesses across the African diaspora. In theory it could be bigger than the Amazons and Apples in Market Value. Reparations monies should be put through the wash and invested and turned around for more profits and African Slave descendants would be shareholders and the certificates passed onto Children, trustees of the fund could all be black icons who make the directions of how this fund money is invested.
    Additionally, whites individuals, corporations and pension funds can put their monies into the funds for investment, if they wish to redeem their souls from the sins of their fathers and also make returns from investing in black development projects.
    This may go over your head and make you go glassy eyed but it is all standard banking subject matter.

    Like

  • Slave masters hands…..can African descendants do nothing for themselves….i think i asked you that back then too…wuh i know how to manage money, don’t need no slave master and their imps and pimps doing any of that for me…it’s counterproductive, self-defeating and incredibly self-destructive….why are yall still projecting the image in 2020 that Black/African people are helpless…and are unable to manage their own money or the Continent’s resources themselves….why???

    Like

  • Slavery was funded by selling shares in coffee shops and was the original investment instrument that started the City of London, Banking, Shipping, Insurance Businesses and Industries of Global Trade Capitalism.

    The Royal African Company had a monopoly of the Atlantic Slave Trade and was founded by the Duke of York in British Royal family who later became King James II (1662 – 1731)

    ▶ Will The Circle Be Unbroken?

    Like

  • My comments were aimed straight at Hillary Beckles head for him to pick up and follow through with

    Like

  • Reparations”

    How does a country recover from centuries of slavery and racism? In the US, a growing number of voices are saying the answer is reparations.

    Reparations are a restitution for slavery – an apology and repayment to black citizens whose ancestors were forced into the slave trade.

    It’s a policy notion that many black academics and advocates have long called for, but one that politicians have largely sidestepped or ignored.

    But increased activism around racial inequalities and discussions among Democratic 2020 presidential candidates have thrust the issue into the national spotlight.

    This week, talk of reparations made headlines after a Fox News contributor argued against the policy by saying the US actually deserves more credit for ending slavery as quickly as it did.

    “America came along as the first country to end it within 150 years, and we get no credit for that,” Katie Pavlich said on Tuesday, adding that reparations would only “inflame racial tension even more”.

    What’s the history?

    Talk of repaying African-Americans has been around since the Civil War era, when centuries of slavery officially ended.

    Some experts have calculated the worth of black labour during slavery as anywhere from billions to trillions of dollars. Adding in exploitative low-income work post-slavery pushes those figures even higher.

    Even after the technical end of the slave trade, black Americans were denied education, voting rights, and the right to own property – treated in many ways as second-class citizens.

    Those arguing for reparations point to these historic inequalities as reasons for current schisms between white and black Americans when it comes to income, housing, healthcare and incarceration rates.

    Prof Darrick Hamilton, Executive Director of Ohio State University’s Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity, says this history is part of America’s unique problem.

    “From our founding fabric we have based our political and economic institutions on chattel slavery,” he told the BBC. “Which makes our institutions not only pernicious but structurally entrenched [in inequalities].

    Our great great great great great great great Grand Kids will collect..???

    Like

  • ▶ But It Comes Out Mad

    Like

  • Meant to say, it does…

    Like

  • “Our great great great great great great great Grand Kids will collect..???”

    tell that to Sir Slave Title Shillary and all the crooks waiting around while planning to TIEF IT…..build big ugly buildings while attaching their slave names to them and within months the buildings falling sick…

    Like

  • This more or less breaks down the REALITY…colonial agents in black face keeping their own people colonized, mentally enslaved, oppressed, exploited, criminalized, robbed..

    “African Continental Unity Party – ACUP
    50m ·
    The greatest trick the colonizer has succeeded in achieving; is his ability to create a lasting system and finding a representative among us to manage this system for his interests; with these newly trained local agents, the same old colonizers are able to colonise and exploit us without sending a governors from the UK or France.
    By this, our colonizers no longer have to carry on their heads, the burden of moral guilt of colonization and exploitation which last in history forever.

    You are all now ready to blame yourselves for the bads you endure at the hands of this system because the faces you see in this Systemic exploitation look just like you.
    Mostly, we point to this colonizer’s representatives/politicians and call them corruption. But we mostly fail to ask ourselves, “how big are the pockets of the African politician to carry the huge monies that are drained through exploitation from Africa each day?”

    They should have been the richest souls on earth, if indeed they are the ultimate beneficiaries of the massive exploitations in Africa. Sadly, they only have a share of 5% with the huge 95% going to our original colonizers who placed them in power and on whose interests they are working.

    The system need more pushs: like how our fathers and forefathers fought physical colonization, we must put in all efforts to fight the system of neocolonization.
    This is why we have come together in unity to form the African Continental Unity Party. Our party will not accepting support from any colonizer or their agents; we shall mobilize international resources to fight this battle to win to serve internal interests.
    Join #ACUP today and become part of the family.”

    Like

  • @TLN

    In the 1970s, the late Russell Pierre, then editor of West Indian World newspaper, took a team every year of black British footballers to play locals in the Caribbean. It was very popular. The Football Association stopped it.

    Like

  • Africans have “moved” to US and Caribbean as Slaves (1562 – 1833) https://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/campaignforabolition/abolitionbackground/slaverytimeline/timeline.html
    and Slave Descendants of Caribbean have voluntarily moved to UK (since 1948) and USA

    Who was Claudia Jones?
    If you go to google she is on the search page
    If you go youtube there are some vids on her

    Like

  • There are also African Slave descendants in South America and Europe

    Follow the music

    and the remixes

    Like

  • “and Slave Descendants of Caribbean have voluntarily moved to UK (since 1948) ”

    this is how lies and MISINFORMATION gets spread amongst Black/African people, there was nothing VOLUNTARY about Windrush, the islands were maliciously left in POVERTY by colonizers, there was a 170 year old DEBT owing to financiers for PAYING OFF SLAVEMASTERS FOR THE LOSS OF BLACK HUMAN PROPERTY…descendants of slaves from the Caribbean were USED WITHOUT THEIR PERMISSION AND KNOWLEDGE to repay this debt…….there was the German bombing of London and the city had to be rebuilt……using the cheapest labor..

    it was all engineered…stop spreading lies and misinformations….it is easily picked up and DEBUNKED…

    Like

  • “it was all engineered…stop spreading lies and misinformations….it is easily picked up and DEBUNKED…”

    Blacks in UK in USA experience racism daily and are subject matter experts of living in the belly of the beast

    stop getting your knickers twisted love

    Like

  • Black/Africans in Barbados suffer DAILY RACISM AS WELL, living in THIER BLACK MAJORY COUNTRY, funded by them…and managed BY THEIR BLACK FACE LEADERS that they elect…none of this is normal nor right, not what is happening in descendants and not what is happening in US to the descendants of MOSTLY SLAVES…they all know what they have done and why and no one is allowing any whitewash of boldfaced lies..

    Like

  • not what is happening to descendants…IN BARBADOS and not what is happening in US>……….

    555…this is not about you, you’re a light/flyweight…

    Like

  • We are well aware of what goes on in US, it never stopped, only intensified, it’s what’s going on in Barbados and the Caribbean AGAINST THE DESCENDANTS OF SLAVE that a huge nonstop SPOTLIGHT has to be SHINED ON…the difference, the methods used in US will kill you right away, the methods used by the black traitors in Barbados’ parliament will take decades to kill off you and your whole family….a torturous destruction.

    https://www.usatoday.com/in-depth/news/nation/2020/10/12/covid-segregation-killing-black-americans-new-jersey/5798587002
    “EAST ORANGE, N.J. – Angenetta Robinson shut her door, sat at the edge of her queen bed and stuck the thermometer under her tongue. It climbed to 99. Two hours later, it read 101, then 103. She last remembers 105.

    “I wasn’t checking anymore because I was in La-la Land,’’ Robinson said.

    Then came visions of getting up each morning to go to a job she never had, talking to co-workers who didn’t exist. It felt real, but it wasn’t.

    What was real was COVID-19 was ravaging the Black and brown community in Essex County, New Jersey, and had Robinson holed up in her bedroom hallucinating most of those 10 days in early April.

    Days earlier, Robinson had rushed a sick friend to the hospital. He tested positive for the virus, sending Robinson into quarantine.”

    Like

  • Braga-Dat

    Like

  • Ten to One in Babylon
    One to One in Zion

    Like

  • Since Prof. Shillary don’t think 50 billion dollars in reparations should not be going into individual’s hands, it SHOULD NOT BE GOING INTO HIS NOR ANY OF THE GOVERNMENT’S OF THE CARIBBEAN HANDS EITHER…Lloyds and this one and that one old slave traders…can BUILD UP THE CARIBBEAN AREA THAT THEY NEGLECTED THEMSELVES…they don’t need to put any money in Shillary or any of the governments’ hands to do that….descendants of slaves have lost more than Enuff in the last 60 years via the thieves of the Caribbean..

    https://www.facebook.com/groups/269202760462518/permalink/636693900380067/

    Like

  • Since Prof. Shillary don’t think 50 billion dollars in reparations should be going into individual’s hands…

    Like

  • Nor should it go in to the UWI.

    Like

  • 15 million slaves = First Generation taken from Afrika only
    they were bred for 20 generations from age 14 by mothering slaves
    and had up to 15 slave babies

    Like

  • 555…that breakdown certainly gives Lloyds etc an idea of how to develop the blueprint to rebuild the Caribbean, the population of African descendants has doubled since then, and then there is just a matter of including the first peoples, the natives, in that redevelopment plan since they too were heavily impacted by slavery and invasion. they can get it done…..with no strings attached, and Africa’s resources SHOULD NOT BE INVOLVED PERIOD..

    all the Thieves of the Caribbean are salivating at the thought of putting their hands on what is not theirs…NOT A DIME.

    Like

  • Don’t understand how this reparation thing will work, but at least they figured out who will not get anything.

    Counting and distributing chickens before they hatch.

    Big elephant projects and 50 years later ….

    Like

  • Leave them Theo, it makes for great theatre…this was never about getting reparations for the people, the African descendants of slaves, this was always about GETTING THEIR THIEVING, CORRUPT HANDS ON REPARATIONS MONEY….to build a bunch of shite buildings, put their slave names up on them so they can admire, boast and pretend…and TIEF the rest of money….they are a disrepectful insulting shame and disgrace to our ancestors, not one of them will open their mouths about what they helped create in Guyana, the stench of stinking coon slaves.

    in the meantime, the colonial racists are rampaging in Guyana, this is the evil slave master’s legacy in the Caribbean., let’s see what the UN and the other balless wonders do….

    “His Worship The Mayor, Councillor Ubraj Narine
    ht1S7ponsosrhedns ·
    For Immediate Release
    14th October,2020
    I call on President Ali to stand by his words, which he pledged that he is willing to work with all Guyanese in bringing the country together. He stated that he wishes to lead by example, but in recent events, he has shown otherwise. The unlawful arrest of Afro Guyanese in Guyana is becoming more prevalent since the new Government has taken office. Former Minister Volda Ann Lawrence was arrested yesterday, then placed on a $100,000 bail for bogus charges with no substantial evidence.
    The PPP lead Government has once again shown the Guyanese people that the power they have is above the law. Their Regime has once again shown us that they are willing to harass, manipulate, discriminate and control the Guyanese population by creating division amongst our people. A political tactic they have once again brought forward from ancient history.
    I am a Proud Indo Guyanese, and this is the 21st Century, I cannot sit and watch as our Afro Brothers and Sisters continue to be treated as they are anything less than Human Beings. It is unfair, unjust and inhumane that we are one people, one nation, one destiny and this is how the Government wishes to carry on the Guyanese legacy.
    While the PPP lead Government have the police force harassing innocent Afro Guyanese, we still await Justice for the Henry Boys and Haresh Singh, also what about the rate of abuse and murder of our Guyanese women? What is being done to protect our children from the predators who seek to take their innocents? What about the COVID-19 measures? While we await the Government to deal with more pressing matters, they have our Police Force busy hunting and harassing innocent Afro Guyanese.
    When does it end? What are we teaching our young? Is this the country we wish to continue to foster? Is this the Guyana we want to live in? We need to come together as One people, One Nation and One Destiny. We cannot allow the older generation to continue to spread hate, Division and destruction in our Beloved Country. The Mayor and City Council is willing to live in love and unity for the development of the City of Georgetown and at large Guyana. We cannot sit idly by as our Citizens suffer. With that said, I call on the United Nation, the diplomatic community and CARICOM to cease the silence on the racial attacks on the Afro Guyanese community in Guyana.
    We must protect not one, but all our Guyanese people no matter their ethnicity.”
    -END-

    Like

  • For them it’s all about their worthless, useless, piece of shit slave names and what they can get for themselves.

    Here is the epitome of corruption we all heard about pre election with Mia espousing how corrupt maloney is and how he should be in prison for all the stealing he helped DLP government ministers with, because she had all the evidence in her big red bag of corruption… and especially for the death of the Holder child, yet here he is as the FRONT MAN transplanting their small island style of corruption to Guyana…..the front man for racist minority thieves and corrupt governments.

    .https://barbadostoday.bb/2020/10/14/maloney-linked-to-possible-guyana-investment/

    “Barbadian businessman and housing developer Mark Maloney is reportedly spreading his wings to Guyana, holding meetings with the newly elected President about a possible investment there.”

    Like

  • For them it’s all about their worthless, useless, piece of shit slave names, SLAVE TITLES..and what they can get for themselves…that’s how it’s always been pre and post fake independence.

    Like

  • “Don’t understand how this reparation thing will work, but at least they figured out who will not get anything”

    In a bankruptcy/death estate process Official Receivers established by courts hold the immediate cash or assets available in an estate while creditors or inheritors put in claims which are validated.

    Receivers also investigate whether anyone else is due to pay into the estate or receive payments as beneficiaries.

    After a period of time initial and subsequent dividends are paid in tranches which will be ongoing until the above processes are complete.

    There are similar process for claimants in reparations payments such as war crimes.

    Like

  • Theo…don’t mind 555….he has big designs on controlling and managing any reparations that don’t behlong to him, himself, he already said he is not entitled to any….all this talk about estate is just another scam to rob Black/African people…they all WANT JAILING..

    Like

  • I really don’t see how prosecuting these people is going to bring Guyanese together. Even if they are worthy of prosecution it will not be accepted as such. This will do more harm than good. This is why I don’t believe Donald Trump will be prosecuted for anything after the elections. In that climate it would do more harm than good.

    Like

  • “he has big designs on controlling and managing any reparations that don’t behlong to him, himself, he already said he is not entitled to any…”

    shut up already
    biiiitch

    I am an advocate for reparations a neutral in battle of black versus white, impartial not partial, objective not subjective
    capiche

    Like

  • “shut up already
    biiiitch”

    ya are also a self serving piece of shit.

    Like

  • If ah so, ah so
    Jah lyrics and chapter of version spelt out
    “Me throw me corn a door, me no call no fowl
    Suppose you wanna pick it up, is your business
    Oh yeah.. yeah, yeah, yeah!

    Me throw me corn a door, me no call no fowl
    Suppose you wanna pick it up, is your business
    Oh yeah.. yeah, yeah, yeah!

    Whether you are black or you are white
    Whether you are black or you are white
    It is you.. it is you
    It is you.. it is you

    Why won’t you stop your fussin’ and your fighting?
    Why won’t you stop your stealing and your killing?
    It’s you.. I’m talking to
    It’s you.. I’m talking to

    If the cap fit you, wear it
    If ah so, ah so, oh yeah, yeah, hmm
    (..)”

    Like

  • Now that we got all of that out of the way, yall human pestilence, parasites, leeches, and moochers in Black/African people’s lives..need to STAY THE HELL OUT of Black/African people’s business, you are not entitled to anything, you are not entitled to have any say…..at some point in time, the putrid coon slaves, slave title holders and ni*ga sell outs won’t have any say either.

    Like

  • Dub it flash it

    Like

  • Parasites and thieves can’t stop Black/African greatness or continue hiding it to live off our backs like leeches.

    Like

  • Only sell out ni*gas for leaders would allow greedy hateful racists/Mzungus to still undermine Black people 400 years later….no good basura.

    Like

  • Wasn’t going to rest until that video showed up.

    Like

  • These are the types of savages, sell out black leaders glorify,

    Like

  • A useful contribution to the issue od black enslavement instead of some of the dribble posted to this important blog.

    Servitude and enslavement: legal distinctions

    By Jerome Handler
    In 1659 a large group of servants, self-identified as “freeborn Englishmen” petitioned the British Parliament for their freedom.
    They claimed they had been falsely accused of participating in a Royalist plot in 1654 and were forcibly and illegally shipped to Barbados where, against their wills, they were indentured.
    The petitioners found Barbados a “place of torment” where they suffered the “most insupportable captivity.” They emphasised their English citizenship in making their case for freedom. Although the petition was denied on technical legal grounds, what is very important in drawing a distinction between enslavement and servitude is that servants could claim legal rights as Englishmen, something no enslaved African could do.
    Servants were generally powerless and the rights they claimed in Barbados were often ignored by a judicial system that heavily favoured the planter class. However, there was no legal or informal way that any enslaved African could petition the governor or legislature of Barbados, let alone the British Parliament, for anything.
    In fact, slaves had no legally recognised rights. They were regarded as private property over which owners claimed absolute authority, a fundamental characteristic of slavery in all slave societies of the New World. Moreover, slaves were property for their lifetimes unless manumitted, a rare occurrence and particularly rare in seventeenth century Barbados. Manumission itself was an extension of an owner’s property rights, that is, the right of a property owner to dispose of his property as he wished. Servants, in contrast, could be claimed as property only for the period of their indentures. Although “owners” legally controlled only their labouring hours, in actuality this control extended to their non-labouring hours as well.
    Both groups were itemised as property along with cattle and other goods in deeds of sale and wills, but if servants were “sold” or transmitted to other
    masters, it was normally for the time remaining in their indenture periods. A typical example is a 1643 will which bequeathed “two Christian servants . . .
    for their full terme they have to serve and two women negroes . . . for the termes of theire natural lives.”
    Many laws in early Barbados pertained in one way or another to the enslaved, but there was never a law that established slavery on the island or defined the characteristics of an enslaved person.
    The early English settlers of Barbados brought with them ideas about African slavery that were widely shared in the European world, including by the English Crown. These ideas were immediately applied to the handful of Africans they had captured as a prize on the trans-Atlantic crossing.
    For example, it was understood, though never established in Barbados law, that enslaved Africans served for life. In addition, enslaved status was heritable from the mother, regardless of the father’s status. Both ideas were critical features of New World slavery and highlight fundamental distinctions between slavery and indentured servitude; the latter was never inherited and theoretically lasted only for the period specified in the indenture document.
    Written permission
    There were many other distinctions between these two groups in Barbados’ laws. For example, both servants and enslaved required written permission to leave the plantation or place of their residence; this was also a widespread restriction in early English America. After their indenture periods were over, however, servants were free to leave the island, provided they could pay their own passage; slaves had no such option and no slave could ever leave Barbados without written permission (escapes, however, by various means did occur throughout the period of slavery).
    Profound differences in the status of both groups are also reflected in a 1703 law which permitted servants who felt they were harshly treated to
    bring their complaints before a Justice of the Peace. Regardless of how futile such complaints might have been in many or most cases, it would have been unthinkable for the Barbados legislature to grant a similar privilege to the enslaved. Even before passage of this law, a servant could institute a legal proceeding against a master in the event of mistreatment or disagreement over terms of the indenture; the servant might even sue for freedom. Although the system was heavily weighted against the servant, a handful of known legal cases show a servant was able to get a judgment against a master and was even freed and compensated for damages. An enslaved person could never have brought an owner to court, let alone receive a judgment against him. No enslaved person could appeal to the judicial system for anything.
    Moreover, the enslaved were prohibited from testifying against Whites in legal proceedings, a right held by servants and any other white person; deprived of such a legal protective device until 1831, the enslaved were even more vulnerable to exploitative, aggressive and malicious behaviour by Whites.

    Next Week: The Barbados Legal System: The Laws of 1661.
    Jerome S. Handler is a historical anthropologist and archaeologist who has been conducting research on Barbados since the early 1960s.

    Source: Nation

    Like

  • “In fact, slaves had no legally recognised rights. They were regarded as private property over which owners claimed absolute authority, a fundamental characteristic of slavery in all slave societies of the New World. Moreover, slaves were property for their lifetimes unless manumitted, a rare occurrence and particularly rare in seventeenth century Barbados”

    The glass beads, cowrie shells, manilla, alcohol, tobacco, whisky, guns used to trade slaves, served the purpose of being a “legal” transaction that recorded the ownership and then branding of slaves by corporations.

    I read somewhere that there was a 15 children rule that allowed mothering slaves to be freed of their slavery although they remained on the estate as matriarch figures of their families (who had not been sold).

    Like

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