Labour’s Pains

labour_unionsThis Barbados Advocate editorial attacks the issue of abuse of labour laws by employers.  What does this bode for the state of the trade unionism in Barbados the people’s representative.

Barbados Underground

Apart from the current disenchantment felt at the official effort to outsource some of the operations of the Sanitation Service Authority to private independent contractors and consternation at the nettlesome issue of the abuse of fixed term contracts by local employers to the detriment of workers, the local labour movement would have recently found a sympathetic ally in the person of the Honourable Minister of Labour, Dr Esther Byer-Suckoo.

According to the lead story in last Tuesday’s Barbados Advocate, the Minister revealed that her Ministry has been receiving reports from workers that their employers are not complying with their obligations under relevant pieces of legislation, including the 1976 Employment of Women Maternity Leave Act and the two most recent enactments; the Safety and Health at Work Act and the Employment Rights Act respectively. Indeed, she shared with the audience at a recent Occupational Health and Safety seminar that some of the complaints have been made directly to her office, although she appropriately instructs the worker in question to make his or her complaint to the Labour Department.

That a worker should make a complaint of this nature to a Cabinet Minister demonstrates not only the near-reverential awe in which these individuals are held by some members of the public, but also the existence of a lacuna in the agenda of the local workers’ organizations who should be ready sources of competent advice in these matters, and the failure and inutility of the state machinery established to treat with and redress such complaints.

For instance, under section 102 of the Safety and Health at Work Act 2005, the employee is afforded a statutory immunity from dismissal if he or she should request an inspection of the workplace by an inspector from the Labour Office. In this connection, we were surprised to learn in the report that the Labour Minister had revealed in the same address that “an inspectorate has been put in place to follow up on complaints”.

So far as the Employment Rights Act 2012 is concerned, each of the several rights therein guaranteed, whether entitlement to an accurate written statement of particulars, to an itemized pay statement, or to a certificate of employment record, is accompanied by a detailed procedure for its vindication, most times through a complaint via the Chief Labour Officer to the Employment Rights Tribunal. The paucity of matters heard so far by that body signifies a need for a quicker, more effective means of dispute resolution if disadvantaged workers are not to be become disillusioned.

Perhaps in a concession that current penalties for labour offences are dated and therefore inadequate, the Minister promised to put even more dissuasive penalties in place. One glaring example of this may be found in the penalty for an offence under the Trade unions Act , Cap 361, section 40A, where the punishment for adversely affecting an employee on account of trade union membership or activities is a maximum fine of $1000 or imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or both. This is so, despite the fact that right being infringed here, the individual freedom of association for trade union purposes, is one recognized by major international human rights and international labour law instruments, inter-regional state undertakings, and one that even finds a presence in out Constitution as a guaranteed fundamental right.

We should think that a fine of a mere $1 000 (since a sentence of imprisonment is highly unlikely in any event) for the denial of such a fundamental freedom by a private entity is trifling at best and should be significantly increased.

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57 Comments on “Labour’s Pains”

  1. Gabrielhy October 29, 2016 at 2:47 PM #

    The trade union movement is hand in glove with the DLP and it is to the benefit of the hierarchy to sacrifice workers’ rights and entitlements during the office of that party.The obvious rewards inter alia include a high end duty free Merc or Beamer,a diplomatic posting in NA or U.K./EU,a board pick or senior management position on a statutory board or a special adviser to a minister.The BWU had no hesitation joining the DLP in closing down the 4 Seasons Project.The NUPW had no problem in short changing the airport workers in a sell out to the PM unknown to the workers.If the workers suck salt during the term of the DLP,their interest will be resurrected in the very next dispensation when the 40% plus the 29% will kick this lot of political misfits and wild thiefing boys,to the curb……..hopefully,…………because there are some JA’s out there who like punishment and can’t see the wood for the trees.


  2. chad99999 October 29, 2016 at 5:08 PM #

    It should not be primarily up to the state to police workplace health and safety regulations. The agencies of the state, including the courts, should be the last resort.

    Doesn’t Barbados have health and safety auditors who police the regulations under the guidance of non-profit industry associations?


  3. ac October 29, 2016 at 5:49 PM #

    it is in the best interest for both labour and Unions to worked together , one hand cannot clap alone , The first and only priority must be country first, so this once upon a time approach which unions uphold solemnly unto themselves disregarding country as an after thought does not work in their best interest, The Thatcher regime brought Unions into a cohesive mode of reasoning with govt after the countries interest was used as a bargaining chip to sabotage and undermine the external and internal structure of the country and to boost the Unions annual revenue and increased membership
    What we have here in Barbados are a boisterous group who are playing one man up manship in favour of a few and are contented to hold country hostage in the event their demands are not met a game of russian roulette which would eventually shoot them in the head,


  4. ac October 29, 2016 at 8:29 PM #

    So George Payne flex his muscles and shove Mia’S little favorite Cynthia Forde out of the way. For women in the BLP climbing the BLP ladder means being first kick down and starting all over again


  5. Violet C Beckles October 30, 2016 at 12:54 AM #

    The red skin gray head man the head of the labor board sells out the people rights, The white brag how they have him in their pocket when they are removed from working at their place of business, No pay outs as they use Bajans as low life slave labor, Being now sold by your own so called people, All these government head need to be fired and replace with none crooks , to much family working for government of the DBLP fraud government of Barbados,BRICS,China now seem to be head of IMF, lets see if they can make China lose their Honor,Not.,


  6. Dompey October 30, 2016 at 4:28 AM #

    “Unions are contend with holding the country hostage if their demands aren’t met”

    Though I support the right of the union to fight fair wages and benefits for its workers, I cannot support an union which acts without reason. But government ought, must and should be wise when dealing with the union in its efforts to formulate contingency plans to counteract the unreasonable demands of the union or else the union will become nothing more than a dictatorship in our system of government. No power should be left unchecked in a democracy as Caswell Franklyn believes it ought to be from the standpoint of the union because if you noticed, he seldom writes about the rights of employers verses those of the employees to better educate his membership.


  7. ac October 30, 2016 at 7:01 AM #

    did BU get a copy of the litany of to do things Mia has on her wish list to energize the barbados economy

    Well here there are

    Building peninsulas and islands
    Asking barbadians to inject personnel finances in the public and private sector of barbados to accelerate growth
    Establishing a Standing Commission on Corruption

    folks some things to think about


  8. Vincent Haynes October 30, 2016 at 8:42 AM #

    Address by the Political Leader, Hon. Mia Amor Mottley at the Party’s 78th Annual Conference. · Video


  9. David October 30, 2016 at 10:02 AM #


    Why do we bother to highlight what these political parties are promising to do? Where is the move by the opposition to commit to transparency legislation?


  10. Vincent Haynes October 30, 2016 at 10:59 AM #

    David October 30, 2016 at 10:02 AM #

    Chuckle…..I was helping AC as it had difficulty posting the promisses.

    Transparency will not come anytime soon…..I agree that action is what matters and that will be tested in the first 100 days of the new govt……would not be suprised if most of us end up cussing the new govt. after 100 days.


  11. Tony Trotman October 30, 2016 at 12:06 PM #

    The redundancy dismissals of the NCC employees were blatantly unfair – so is the Government in any position to chastise employers about their non-compliance with labour laws?


  12. ac October 30, 2016 at 1:27 PM #

    Lol helping AC i do not think so. One look at those promises and they tell the naivette of Mia ridiculous agenda . Expecting bajans who are notorious for savings to empty their saving nest into public or private projects is ludicrous such a possibility is between slim and none first the leader who have to eliminate a bajan mentality of distrust of their own


  13. Enuff October 30, 2016 at 3:09 PM #


    Two words: competence and confidence.


  14. ac October 30, 2016 at 3:46 PM #

    Competence and Confidence ,,Whuloss after yesterday highlights and fanfare at the BLP one spirited love fest ( well except for that one incident when George Payne wrestled cynthia forde to the ground ) one would have been led to believe that the BlP brigade would be taking delight in hammering home with confidence that a competent BLP has an agenda all mapped out to save the barbados economy but not a peep out of the fiery BEES who are full of criticisms of govt policies but now have seemingly disappeared believing that there Emperor has no clothes


  15. ac October 30, 2016 at 7:27 PM #

    The BLP cannot expect to get no more support than previously. There yesterday performance by show of the opening of hands was a weakened luck lustre approach to solving the national debt. Expecting that building peninsulas and islands would in any way bring down debt or creating jobs is an illusion as that of parting the red sea when the reality of increasing debt would be just as problematic in adding further cost to the debt.
    Mia socialist agenda of average citizens on minimal income using their savings to built an economy is another episode out of the twilight zone.
    The day after such loud pronunciations the BU deck has been cleared as the Bees try their darndest to get accustomed to the new chief in command of the blp titanic


  16. Watchman October 31, 2016 at 6:39 AM #

    @ AC

    Time will tell AC, your time is running out fast


  17. ac November 16, 2016 at 7:15 AM #

    Why is the govt in parliament fighting with McDowell instead of securing the interest of the country by having a contingency plan to combat the long lines at the airport
    These illogical back and forth between Inniss and Akanni and does not make sense.Time to take action


  18. David November 16, 2016 at 8:03 AM #

    By law customs and immigration officers must do the job. Unfortunately yardfowls can’t do it.


  19. ac November 16, 2016 at 2:01 PM #

    Does govt have the power to ammend laws when laws are in conflict with the national interest as it applies to economically and socially.
    Certainly there are those who are retired that can be called out to supplement in helping to speed up production at immigration against the go slow.


  20. David November 16, 2016 at 2:04 PM #

    Of course, let us begin with the Prevention Against Corruption Act read Integrity Legislation.


  21. ac November 16, 2016 at 2:07 PM #

    Certainly the power of economic and social enviroment of a country cannot be placed soley in the hands of Union with every regard in so much to trample on disregard the national interest
    What law would give such power to any Union. I belive that govt intervention when it applies to national interest lays at the feet of govt having those solutions guided by law which are necessary to untied country interest from self interest


  22. ac November 17, 2016 at 6:08 AM #

    i am at pains trying to figure out why this govt would sit at on its hands and allowed a Union to use rogue tactics to hold the country hostage , it really boggles the mind.
    The vast majority of public is against the NUPW actions ,what is happening at the ports is not fair to those who are coming to the island and those who are living here and are major contributors of the business sector . In my mind this is an act of economic war against the nation fueled by political persuasion
    Therefore it is incumbent on govt to take measures that would give business and society in general relief from the ongoing pressures associated with the Union actions
    For one they can call out past or retired custom workers to assist even if Unions decide to take further action which in all probability they would not ,Govt action would have sent a message to the Union that they are serious and would take a hardened stance to protect the economic and social stability of a nation at all cost.


  23. lemuel November 17, 2016 at 6:30 AM #

    When you have ALL of our trade unions being run or manipulated by yard fowls with little or no ability form both the DLP and the BLP, we are committing an act of madness if we expect some sort of brilliance in the outcome of their efforts. When you have a trade union model which requires that you use and abuse the port workers, sanitation worker, customs and other workers at our port of entry, didn’t the unions know that one day these entities would wake up to discover the model of deception!!!!


  24. ac November 17, 2016 at 7:23 AM #

    PM stuart admitted that this type of Union actions have taken place before well it boggles logical minds as to why PM Sturat having seen such actions did not table laws as emergency actions which will can give govt authority to intervene using civil minded actions that are in agreement with human right laws to prevent a meltdown of the country social and economic environment when Unions behave adversely or in a controversial manner to the nations best interest


  25. David November 17, 2016 at 8:21 AM #

    Is Stuart a mere mortal?

    A man who promised action based on what he saw on last general election night and years later nothing.


  26. ac November 17, 2016 at 9:08 AM #

    The fact being that in regards to this industrial action what Stuart does would resonate with people response in the next general election.The mere fact that in the height of Seasonal activity when people are depending on a smooth transportation of their interest which can apply to increase income and goods and services are now in conflict with political tension and which give cause to affects their lives …these type of tension poses a significant threat to ordinary citizens lives directly or indirectly and have a great potential which would severly impact govt negatively in the next election.
    The govt therfore instead of having a nonsencial fight between them and Union as to the causes and who should be blame owes it to the country to find a quick solution to the ongoing go slow which is disruptive to visitors and native alike.


  27. millertheanunnaki November 17, 2016 at 9:17 AM #

    @ ac November 17, 2016 at 7:23 AM
    “PM stuart admitted that this type of Union actions have taken place before well it boggles logical minds as to why PM Sturat having seen such actions did not table laws as emergency actions which will can give govt authority to intervene using civil minded actions that are in agreement with human right laws to prevent a meltdown of the country social and economic environment when Unions behave adversely or in a controversial manner to the nations best interest”

    Since you are always calling for solutions to problems created by the current administration, here is one to deal with the airport situation.

    Since 15,000 Bajans and their close friends will be arriving in a few days time why not give them all a red carpet welcome and treat them as outstanding dignitaries with full diplomatic status (with their foreign money to spend and all) or even those of minor significance forex-wise, like the biblical character called the prodigal son?

    You all know them to be Bajans whether by birth, descent or long-term association so why not let them pass through Immigration and Customs as if Barbados is really a free-port to those in the Diaspora?

    There is absolutely no way Bajans could leave the UK, Canada or the USA with contraband or dangerous weapons or chemicals and not be spotted and identified by the security systems at the ports of embarkation.

    That should make them feel not as criminals and you normally do but as real brothers and sisters returning home to paradise.

    It would also put a feather in Fumble’s hat and a spoke in the wheel of the unions.


  28. ac November 17, 2016 at 10:24 AM #

    So let me ask u miller how aout luggage issues and accessibility
    Look miller this not a joke but a spoke with many wheels one that have adversly poke the govt in the eye on many occasions and which govt owes as duty to people to find solutions
    Such rogue attacks does not only affect short term but has lasting long term affect on the nations stabily and erodes self confidence in a govt inabilty to control adverse actions


  29. Vincent Haynes November 17, 2016 at 11:01 AM #


    A brilliant suggestion……I guarantee you that it will not be done and thankfully the unions will be able to hold the govt to account in front of the 15,000 guests,who will leave Bim with a better understanding of the dire straights we are in after hearing from taxi men,waiters and family.

    Too many in the Diaspora are viewing their homeland through rose tinted lenses thanks to the lovely pictures painted by visiting govt members…..time for a reality check.


  30. ac November 17, 2016 at 11:23 AM #

    What so brilliant about a jack suggestion. How does miller solution solve a problem which is affecting ports of calls in barbados and the nation as a whole social and economic enviroment.steupse
    Maybe miller u and Mia can invite the bajan dispora to stage a march along the corridors of bridgetown to upper bay street .


  31. millertheanunnaki November 17, 2016 at 12:10 PM #

    @ ac November 17, 2016 at 11:23 AM

    You also said the same thing about the proposal to impose a 20 cents tax on plastic bags and to encourage the use of reusable bags to replace those environmentally deadly bags at the checkouts.

    But here you have Minister Inniss championing a similar private-sector initiative. Is he also a jackass dressed in the national colours?

    But Minister Inniss has learnt his lessons well from his parliamentary rants.
    But how can one please a deceitful lying person (dlp) who from one side of her mouth asks for solutions to a serious problem but rejects any workable proposal.

    However, we like your idea about staging a march for the members of the Diaspora returning home over the next few days. But we disagree with the route. Let us settle for the Rockley to Oistins route. That should put the QEH to the test in handling national emergencies.

    PS: The people the Mighty Gabby described as the “Government Boots” can be deployed to not only intimidate the throng of marchers but also be proactively used to take the luggage from the hundreds of planes expected to be on the tarmac at the GAIA.


  32. ac November 17, 2016 at 1:53 PM #

    So why are u trying to mix oranges with apples. you need to realize that the two issue have differing effect.The measuring stick that applies to one does not necessarily can be applied to the other.The ports of entry cascade across international waters impacting livelihoods and business locally and internstionally.
    I meaning ask a person to purchase a 20cent plastic bag for grocery is entirely up to the individual similar to the sweet drink tax where the effect is minimal


  33. Colonel Buggy November 17, 2016 at 3:01 PM #

    Are you right in your head Miller? This is Barbados, and like the plantation watchman, not a fellow, not even my sons are going to get a free ride past me to brek de massa canes.
    When I came back to Barbados, a lil poor arse squaddie with nothing to declare, I was given the third degree at the airport, while a Brit with about six tied up card board boxes was given a smile wide, and wave through.
    Nothing has changed. The politicians, might have sweet talk many of them in London, New York and Toronto, but when they set foot in Barbados , they will not be seen in the same light as the PM’s “frequent visitors.”


  34. Colonel Buggy November 17, 2016 at 3:12 PM #

    millertheanunnaki November 17, 2016 at 12:10 PM #

    PS: The people the Mighty Gabby described as the “Government Boots” can be deployed to not only intimidate the throng of marchers but also be proactively used to take the luggage from the hundreds of planes expected to be on the tarmac at the GAIA..
    Funny you should say that. In November 1966 I was on the baggage party which off loaded the baggage from the plane which brought in the Royal Couple and their entourage, and took them poste- haste, under Police escort to Government House.


  35. millertheanunnaki November 17, 2016 at 3:32 PM #

    @ ac November 17, 2016 at 1:53 PM
    “I meaning ask a person to purchase a 20cent plastic bag for grocery is entirely up to the individual similar to the sweet drink tax where the effect is minimal..”

    Are you saying the sweet drink tax is really only a revenue raising measure and not a genuine initiative by the government to fight the spread of diabetes and other NCDs among the young?

    Is that how you see your deceitful lying pitiful administration?

    Like the sweet drink tax, the tax on the plastic bags might not significantly reduce their uptake at the checkout but it would provide a source of income to the many paros if they are (like the plastic sweet drink bottles) paid 10 cents for every plastic carrier bag returned to any recycling centre.

    Wouldn’t that be a win-win situation? The environment benefits in keeping with the DLP’s manifesto pledge of environmental soundness and the paros are offered another source of income to feed their habits instead of begging on the streets.

    The only losers here would be the mosquitoes and their pesky vermin friends called the acs of BU.


  36. Vincent Haynes November 17, 2016 at 3:50 PM #

    millertheanunnaki November 17, 2016 at 3:32 PM #

    Are you aware of the controversy surrounding sweeteners such as aspartame,equal,saccharin,etc,etc and their side effects……

    I am a diabetic and know sugar is harmfull but we are told to use diet drinks,food,etc,which by the way are just as costly as the ones with sugar.

    What a caring govt should do is to get an independent source not tied to multinationals to advise us on what sweeteners are good for us and ban the rest as some can be deadlier than sugar….. not all of our diabetics are internet savvy.


  37. ac November 17, 2016 at 4:20 PM #

    It seems that every and other individual needs a big brother to lean on for some kind of support and chooses govt to only chery pick what is their own self interest. The issue of the go slow impacts every one but some responses are indicative of a narrow minded selfishness that permeates through out some in society that sooner or later would lead to the selfdestruction of a nation


  38. Vincent Haynes November 17, 2016 at 4:27 PM #

    Chuckle…..last I knew both parties are labour with socialist ideals and one of those ideals is looking after every one from cradle to grave and leaving none behind is another one.

    Sometimes I wonder if individuals fully understand the history of their party and what it stands for.


  39. ac November 17, 2016 at 8:45 PM #

    sometimes i wonder if people understand the importance of self reliance and the many benefits reaped like freedom and independence and power to say i owe no man anything


  40. lemuel November 17, 2016 at 9:16 PM #


    Sugar is not harmful. Your body has lost the ability to utilize the sugar. If sugar was harmful the amount of sugar we used in black and white sugar cake, nut cakes, sweet bread etc… as young people would have killed us by the age of 15 0r 16.


  41. ac November 18, 2016 at 6:39 AM #

    The Tension between the Union and govt has now become a moral test of integrity for the govt forcing the govt to do what is in the best interest of the country or bending to the Union most profound threats of wielding a sword of their membership power at the next election against govt
    In my mind the country interest is most important and which govt needs to be more focus with disregard to threats by Union of membership boycott at the voting booth wherein lies the rub of another action that can easily be disregarded if govt remain focus on what is presently occurring weighing in on the disruptive nature which can further erode internally and externally our social and economic performance while focusing on any action necessary to seek resolve in the quickest and strongest way.
    furthermore who are the most being hurt in a nation of 275 thousand it is obvious the majority to which the govt is presently responsible to seek action for resolution.
    in other words when the dust settle and govt makes a decision whether the Union agrees or not the majority whose lives would have been disruptive are those who would be part of the voting block and those are the ones that govt needs to answer to in finding a quick resolution
    In the long run the govt would be rewarded for keeping the country stable in time of crisis while the Union would be remembered for flexing its muscles to secure one persons job and throwing a country of 275 thousand people into the bowels of social and economic disarray
    Go Govt the nation is on your side avoid by any mean necessary allowing a minority vocal group sabotage the country best interest


  42. David November 18, 2016 at 6:55 AM #

    Yes, pick a fight with the union. Way to go.

    On Friday, 18 November 2016, Barbados Underground wrote:



  43. Vincent Haynes November 18, 2016 at 7:40 AM #


    I agree,the same way bullets/guns/knives/poisons are not harmfuli,it all depends on how it is used and by whom.


  44. Vincent Haynes November 18, 2016 at 7:44 AM #


    Are you getting the feeling that this govt wants to backout of its socialist mantra,the foundation of the party so articulated by EWB,especialy the bit about leaving no one behind.

    like the chap in the book disowning his leader 3 times when the going got rough.


  45. David November 18, 2016 at 8:01 AM #


    Current policy formulation is mainly as a result ofba government that is broke!


  46. Bush Tea November 18, 2016 at 8:15 AM #

    @ David
    They are clearly looking for a scapegoat to blame for their failures.

    The ONLY possible logical reason for allowing this childish, silly issue to persist, is to put the union in the position of having to disrupt the shiite celebrations … and thus provide an excuse as to why the whole thing flopped.

    ANY KIND of leader with a modicum of common sense would meet with the union and quietly resolve this idiocy, …and even enlist their participation in the celebrations….

    But wisdom has departed from our world……


  47. ac November 18, 2016 at 8:19 AM #

    The gauntlet has already been thrown down by the Union . Now the actions to correct and put the country interest first us in the hands of govt and if in so doing harsh measures are needed so be it. The populace would understand and long term the country would be in the better and save from total chaos and devastation
    If govt does not stand up for the betterment of the country then who would.
    This issue goes way beyond a popularity contest but weighs in the balance of what is best purposed to move a country forward positively
    There is message which undoubtely needs to be sent to unions that security of a nation takes precedence to the discomfort of a few


  48. Vincent Haynes November 18, 2016 at 8:33 AM #

    The majority out here would say that the gauntlet was thrown down by certain govt operative when the tried to remove him as president which failed then to remove him from a post unceremoniously.

    Bushie…looks like you hit the nail on the head …..dont blame us it is these wicked unions caused the 50th flop……I hope the unions stand together to the end.


  49. Bush Tea November 18, 2016 at 8:58 AM #

    @ Vincent
    Read ac’s piece again at 8:19 AM

    Wisdom has departed our world…
    Idiots and morons are running things.


  50. ac November 18, 2016 at 8:59 AM #

    The Union is standing for one member. The govt was voted to represent a country and that it must do. Failure beyond such a goal would leave govt looking useless and helpless beyond reasons


  51. Bush Tea November 18, 2016 at 9:52 AM #

    What REALLY makes the government look ‘useless and hopeless beyond reason’, is that picture of Froon holding the Devil’s pitchfork on the front of “BarbadosToday”.
    It seems that it is no mere coincidence that wunna pushing this ‘trident’ shiite….

    Wunna REALLY building that monument to Satan at the Garrison in truth doh…..?
    …or is that some special hoax that will be explained on the 30th?


  52. Hants November 18, 2016 at 10:30 AM #

    @ Bushie,…..governance by telepathy. lol

    PRIME MINISTER Freundel Stuart has spoken out to defend his untalkative stance on many public issues.


  53. ac November 18, 2016 at 10:57 AM #

    The Union is standing for one member. The govt was voted to represent a country and that it must do. Failure beyond such a goal would leave govt looking useless and helpless beyond reasons
    This is atrue test of PM will to resolve placing him in the bulls eye of a national madness and the national interest to seek resolution also a recognition of falling into trap of self interst
    Hopefully he will remeber no man can serve two masters at one time


  54. Vincent Haynes November 18, 2016 at 12:05 PM #


    We have now discovered the myopic thinking of the govt…..they keep on talking about……..The Union is standing for one member……..when the whole country is shut down for the 50th,then and only then will they understand it is about the office of the President and ILO conventions……dem too hard ears.


  55. Vincent Haynes November 18, 2016 at 12:10 PM #

    Respect due to our PM,he said that he cannot get involved in everything that flares up in Bim because if he did he would not have time to do his work……….can someone tell me what his work is and his achievements in said work……only asking as he does not talk about that either,so we dont know.


  56. ac November 18, 2016 at 1:42 PM #

    My views are mine u can stsnd for country best interest or stand against. That is your prerogative ..when a country best interest is threaten in favour of all else i prefer to stand in favour of country by all means necessary


  57. Vincent Haynes November 18, 2016 at 1:52 PM #

    Chuckle……….“If you don’t stand for something, you will fall for anything.”


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