Bemuddling African History

Submitted by Charles Knighton

I always find myself bemused by the ipso facto logic of those who attempt to conflate the geographic fact of Egypt’s location on the continent of Africa with Egypt therefore being a black civilization worthy of study during Black History month as Mr. Ian Marshall suggests in his guest column of July 10th, “Laurie misses the point“.

A demographic snapshot of Egypt today would reveal, as would a snapshot of all Mediterranean countries, decidedly non-black populations, a make up not much changed over the millenia.  This is not to suggest that through Egypt’s  long history  Black Africans did not at times gain ascendancy in Egypt, but this this does not make Egypt a Black civilization anymore than Black African countries under colonial rule became White civilizations.

Mr. Marshall’s concern with black Barbadian children who have “grown up on the lies and distortions of Africa by bigoted scholars and mass media” is laudable and yet he seems quite willing to indulge the same tactics by making Egypt a cornerstone of Black History month.  The cognitive dissonance awaiting children who are taught of the magnificent achievements of Egypt during Black History month and who then see old photographs  or newsreels of a non-black population will be palpable, unless the plan is to claim that despite strong evidence to the contrary if one goes back far enough through the centuries and relies on less and less evidence they will discover the original Black Egyptian civilization which dastardly White propagandists have cleverly obscured.

Cultivating self-esteem among children is a commendable undertaking, but if not to collapse it must be built on a solid foundation.  Opting to focus on the least black of African countries during Black History month,  as opposed to focusing on the West African countries Barbadians can actually trace their ancestry to, though less glamorous, will be self-defeating in the long run.

As an individual of European descent I could have attempted to incorporate (and actually did try for a while) all the achievements in Europe from the Renaissance  onward in building my self-esteem, but I found I was only building a house of cards. My true ancestors were of Welsh and Irish stock who probably knew little of such progress but who knew a great deal about trying to make ends meet, and about suffering and, particularly the Irish, starvation and death.  Their grit and determination to overcome, their transit to America with little else but hope for a chance at a better life, though certainly less glamorous than the scientific achievements of Copernicus or Galileo  or Newton, are inspiring and worthy of respect. These castoffs are my true ancestors and this is my true heritage.  I need look no further to bolster my self-esteem.

obiter dictum

In my opinion it is next to impossible for a writer to pen columns for many years without inadvertently revealing underlying prejudices to discerning readers. While I only “know” Mr. Laurie through his words, his musings portray an individual concerned with the betterment of mankind. Understanding this allows this writer to at times disagree with Mr. Laurie’s  prescriptions or proscriptions without questioning his motivations or sincerity.  For Mr. Marshall to impute racist ideology to Mr. Laurie is beyond the pale, demonstrating once again why a meaningful discussion of racial issues in Barbados will likely never occur.

54 thoughts on “Bemuddling African History

  1. Ian Marshall mentioned Egypt ONE single time in his letter on Sunday. The main point of his article (as I understood it) was that he felt it was important, contrary to what Mr. Laurie believes, to teach children about their African heritage pre-transatlantic slavery. He didn’t say that African history only equals Egyptian history, or that Egypt should be made a “cornerstone of Black History Month”. Why are you distorting what he actually said? It was Mr. Laurie, not Mr. Marshall, who made the erroneous point that persons who want to focus on their African history choose only to focus on Egypt.

    Teaching black children that their history began as transatlantic slaves gives them a distorted sense of self. No other group of children other than black children are taught that this is acceptable.
    How ever “honourable one’s intentions are for the betterment of mankind” in a case like this is irrelevant. It’s the effect and not the intention that is important.

    And because as a person of European descent you are satisfied to teach your children only a certain aspect of their history, does not automatically mean that other groups should automatically follow suit. What a European should not be used as the default or template of what all others groups should do.

  2. That should be: What a European “does or does not do” should not necessarily be used as the default or template, etc…”

  3. And what’s so wrong in teaching them both? Why can’t we teach them both African history pre-slavery, and their history as enslaved Africans and beyond?

  4. As the baseball pitcher Leroy Paige used to say, “Don’t look back, something may be gaining on you”. I say “Don’t run backwards, you may never reach the tape”.
    Use your mental legs to move forward and progress, running backwards is pretty much the same as standing still and begging.

  5. @Nia ….
    You are quite correct that Mr. Marshall mentions Egypt only one time, but that is one time more than he mentions any Black African country. And please examine the context:…”Egypt gave Europe its foundations in virtually every aspect of academia and societal development” which is mostly true. He then closes his paragraph with “that is why Black History month is absolutely necessary….”, presumably meaning it is necessary to teach black children what a non black civilization bequeathed to Europe. This makes sense to you?

  6. That’s how he closed THAT particular paragraph. But it’s not how he closed his FINAL paragraph. Or how he began his contribution.

    And what you are saying can also be said of Laurie, who you agree with. HE was the one who first chose to mention Egypt only in relation to African history. Why not start your critique with him? To me, Laurie was the one who threw in the Egypt thing completely in bad faith. I actually enjoy reading his columns, especially the ones about religion. But he totally turned me off with that.

    Like Laurie, you seem to be throwing in the Egypt argument to divert attention away from the wider argument being made.

    Marshall mentioned it in one paragraph in direct reply to Laurie’s assertion that focusing on Egypt was “peripheral”, like focusing on dress, etc. Because he didn’t actually specify any West African countries in his letter (nor was he required to) did not, to me, take away from the overall point of what he was saying.
    Anyone with commonsense knows that when you say African heritage or African history – as Marshall did several times – you are not only referring to Egypt. It is so obvious that he was referring to the histories of African-descended people pre- transatlantic slavery.

    Perhaps you are only seeing what you choose to see in Marshall’s argument.

    Also, the very same argument you are making is also made even when people DON”T mention Egypt at all. How many times has a black person mentioned the history of Ghana, Nigeria or any such country, only to be met with: “What you want to know ‘bout that for, you ain’t no African?”

  7. Let me add something else. In 2009 me and my mother visited the British Museum. I walked the whole length of the place and returned to do it again because there were sections I either missed, or wanted to see again. Both times I visited, in EVERY section of that museum you could run a rat right through the place. EXCEPT, when you went into the Ancient Egypt section. And not actually the Ancient Egypt section, but more specifically, the Mummy section. That area was crowded beyond belief. You could hardly see anything. My mother and I were amazed – we thought the museum was empty, but it wasn’t. It was just that folks preferred to focus on the mummies and everyone was congregating down there. Mainly, I might add, the British folks and other Europeans.

    Later on our same trip, we were talking to an Egyptian scholar from another museum. He told us that it is a challenge to get British people to understand the full scope of Egypt’s history because they are only really interested in the mummy aspect of it. Now trust me, when he said ‘British people’, he wasn’t talking about black people, he meant white people.

    The point I am trying to make is that ALL groups have areas of history that might fascinate them more than other areas. You yourself have a certain aspect of your Irish heritage that you prefer to focus on. But why is it that we always feel compelled to hold black people to a higher standard when they do this? Why are white people and/or other races allowed to love and focus on certain areas of history without criticism, but when black people do it – there is all kinds of noise?

    BTW, I myself was guilty of spending more time – not in the mummy section – but in the Elizabethan and Edwardian Jewellery & Costume sections, the ancient Egyptian cosmetics section, and the History of Money section, than some of the other sections.

    Hey, at heart I’m really just a vain, materialistic girly-girl (LOL!).

  8. Unless we accept that we are of African descent and that we arrived here as slaves from several countries in Africa we will never understand our history. We are so brain washed that we still see ourselves as a branch of the British than we are of a branch of Africa. Many prefer to claim their European ancestry and yet have no explanation why they look the way they do. I would love to know more about history of the ports where many of my ancestors were shipped from as slaves. It would be interesting to get involved in the world DNA project where we would be able to trace our ancestors in Africa and the rest of the world. I bet many would be surprised and think about the story it will tell. If any of you are interested please go to this site.

  9. I am always amused by White folks who feel that it is their prerogative to tell Black folks how and what we should think about ourselves and our history and who presents a model as to how that should be done: “This is how we do our history, now try and imitate what I just did.” That may work for the acculturated Blacks, but be assured that there are many of us who are well educated and we know your number. You have played it so many times.

    The good Irish man is apparently oblivious, self-inflicted or otherwise, of the number of scholarly works that have been written by Black scholars re Egypt and Black history. I would suggest that he reads: William, C. (1987). The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of Race from 4500 BC to 2000 AD. Chicago: Third World Press; Diop, C. A. (1991). Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthology. New York: Laurence Hill Books; Bernal, M. (1987). Black Athena (Vols 1 & 2). New Jersey: Rutgers University Press; Bernal, M. (2001). Black Athena Writes Back: Martin Bernal Responds to his Critics. London: Duke University Press.

    It is well documented that Black folks have different physical features to White folks, and others, i.e. Asiatics, Orientals. If Blacks did not rule Egypt, how does one accounts for sculptures of pharaohs, queens, the figurines, the paintings, and so on of Ancient Egypt with Black features, such as thick lips, bulbous noses, wide eyes, broad forehead, curl up woolly hair; women with big breast, large, round posteriors? Take a good look at the Egyptian sphinxes.

    There are several other reputed Black scholars who have written about African history and African civilization who have countered the White Scholars distortions of Black civilization and history. It is/was crucially important to the White man that the Black slaves are caricatured and painted as a barbaric subhumans, andropoda, so as to justify in his own mind his own barbaric enslavement of another member of the human family.

    Unless Black teachers divest and transform their acculturation into Eurocentric hegemony, Black children will always be at a disadvantage, their self-estimate will always be less than worthy, and Black self-hate will be perpetuated ad infinitum. Black folks really need to transform their paradigm in order to redeem ourselves as adults and in particular our children.

    I will return to the subject at more convenient time with a short essay that deals with these issues as I interpret them from a transgressive discourse perspective. However, if the Irishman checks the above references in the mean time, he will get a good education as to who is besmirching African History by voiding their rheum upon Black folks.I wish the Irishman would desist from insulting my Black intelligence.

  10. The heavy influence out of N America, Europe to a lesser degree which continue to shape our value system means an identification with Africa will recede more and more with time.

  11. what a condescending piece of nonsense…why would a white irishman feel the need to tell black bajans how to view and interpret their own history?

  12. Come on, we black people have to stop being racist and sensitive when someone from another race has a different point of view. I do not see this as being condescending, many black bajans don’t care to know their history. Look around us and see how many of us will identify with mother Africa? Many are trying to be high brown with long fake hair. Many still haven’t left the plantations and their God is massa. We still have this opinion that black people are not racist , but we are all racist no matter what race we are from, some more than others. To have a meaningful and open dialogue on race in Barbados we all must leave our prejudices and anger behind in order to move forward. We cannot correct nor control the past but we can control and direct our future.

  13. “The heavy influence out of N America, Europe to a lesser degree which continue to shape our value system means an identification with Africa will recede more and more with time.”

    David I totally agree with you. Africa will and always be a distant land to many of us because no ties were ever established. Even it were done today many would feel alien because of our socialization.

  14. Historical Quotations /Comments about the Ancient Egyptians:

    1) Herodotus, a Greek writer in the 5th century B.C. claims that “the people of Colchis must be Egyptians because like them they are black-skinned and wooly-haired.” (History, Book II.)
    2) “By the almost unanimous testimony of ancient historians, they [the Egyptians] belong to an African race which first settled in Ethiopia on the Middle Nile: following the course of the river they gradually reached the sea.”
    Gaston Maspero (1846–1916).

    3) ” The Aithiopians(Ethiopians) say that the Egyptians are settlers from among themselves and that Osiris was the leader of the settlement.”
    (1st centuty B.C., Diodorus Siculus of Sicily, Greek Historian, Universal History III.)

  15. “The ancient Egyptians were true Negroes of the same type as all native born Africans. ” Anthropologist, Count Constatin De Volney (1727-1820).

    Arabs invaded Egypt in the 7th Century AD therefore, Arabs have no more connection to Ancient Egypt than Europeans have to Ancient America.

    Recent limb proportion studies of the ancient Egyptians describe them as having tropical body plans, “super-negroid”. (Zakrzewski, S.R. (2003). “Variation in ancient Egyptian stature
    and body proportions”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 121 (3): 219-229.) Other similar studies link them more closely with American blacks than American whites. (Raxter and Ruff, 2008).

    “There is now a sufficient body of evidence from modern studies of skeletal remains to indicate that the ancient Egyptians, especially southern Egyptians, exhibited physical characteristics that are within the range of variation for ancient and modern indigenous peoples of the Sahara and tropical Africa.. In general, the inhabitants of Upper Egypt and Nubia had the greatest biological affinity to people of the Sahara and more southerly areas.” (Nancy C. Lovell, ” Egyptians, physical anthropology of,” in Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, ed. Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake Shubert, ( London and New York: Routledge, 1999) pp 328-332).

  16. DNA analysis of ancient Egyptian mummies from the tomb of nobles found skin packed with MELANIN.

    “In 1997, the German Institute for Archaeology headed an excavation of the tombs of the nobles in Thebes-West, Upper Egypt. At this time, three types of tissues were sampled from different mummies: meniscus (fibrocartilage), skin, and placenta. Archaeological findings suggest that the mummies dated from the New Kingdom (approximately 1550/1080 BC)… Skin sections showed particularly good tissue preservation, although cellular outlines were never distinct. Although much of the epidermis had already separated from the dermis, the remaining epidermis often was preserved well . The basal epithelial cells were packed with melanin as expected for specimens of Negroid origin.”
    — A-M Mekota1, M Vermehren. (2005).

  17. All this DNA stuff does not answer the question – Why, with this supposed superiority, was there no continuation of the supremacy enjoyed by the ancient egyptians and other continental civilisations, leading eventually to the exploitation of the masses?

  18. The white boy who wrote this article is a PATHOLOGICAL RACIST.

    Historical Quotations:
    “There has been a deliberate destruction of African culture and the records relating to that culture. This destruction started with the first invaders of Africa. It continued through the period of slavery and the colonial system. It continues today on a much higher and more dangerous level. There are now attempts on the highest academic level to divide African history and culture within Africa in such a manner that the best of it can be claimed for Europeans, or at the very least, Asians.” – Dr John Hendrick Clarke.

    When Count C.F. Volney saw the colossal Black /African Monuments in Upper Egypt in 1787 AD , he wrote:
    “A people now forgotten, discovered, while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and science. A race of men, now rejected from society for their sable (black) skin and frizzled hair, founded on the study of the laws of nature those civil and religious systems which still govern the universe.”

    Count C.F. Volney also wrote :
    ” To think that a race of Black men who are today our slaves and the object of our contempt are the same ones to whom we owe our arts, sciences and even the very use of speech .”- Count C.F. Volney , Ruins of Empires (1890).

    Baron Denon and Gustav Flaubert saw the the Sphinx of Gizeh before the soldiers of Napoleon de Bonteparte blew off the nose of this African monument.
    ” The character is African….the lips are thick…
    Art must have been at a high pitch when this monument was executed .”- Baron Denon , Travels to Upper and Lower Egypt , vol.1(1910).
    ” It is certainly Ethiopian. The lips are thick.” – Gustav Flaubert, Notes de Voyage ,1849.

    The Europeans and Arabs who invaded Egypt vandlised countless temples , stole numerous artefacts , and destroyed several African monuments including the Sphinx of Gizeh.
    Historian Gerald Massey reports the coverups and systematic destruction of Africoid art perpetrated by European cultural criminals:

    “In some of the ancient Egyptian temples the Christian iconoclasts, when tired with hacking and hewing at the symbolic figures incised in the chambers of imagery, and defacing the most prominent features OF THE MONUMENTS, FOUND THEY COULD NOT DIG OUT THE HIEROGLYPHICS, AND TOOK TO COVERING them over with plaster; and this plaster, intended to hide the meaning and stop the mouth of the stone word, has served to preserved the ancient writings as fresh in hue and sharp in outline as when they were first cut and colored.” –
    Historical Jesus, and the Mythical Christ, Gerald Massey .

    Europeans proudly display all the artefacts that they looted from the African continent over the years :
    -Rhind mathematical papyrus was looted from Egypt.
    – The Crown of Tewodros II of Ethiopia resides in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, United Kingdom. This along with appoximately 400 artefacts were looted by British troops during the invasion of Magdala in 1868.
    -In 1937,fascist dictator Benito Mussolini looted the OBELISK OF AXUM from Ethiopia and moved it to Rome.
    – The Lion of Judah statue was erected in 1930 just before Emperor Haile Selassie’s coronation, it was looted by the Italian troops in 1935 and taken to Rome, where it was erected next to the Vittorio Emanuelle Monument.

  19. “The white boy who wrote this article is a PATHOLOGICAL RACIST.”

    Are you sure it is a white person who wrote this? What about you ? Aren’t you a racist as well? What if the person wanted you to think that by saying he is white to see the gut reaction from people like you. It is sad when we resort to name calling, we have a long way to go.

  20. Up to the 1930’s, 1940’s and even ‘50’s, Islandgal, were Greeks and Italians in the US considered white? Did THEY themselves consider themselves white?
    When enslaved Africans were first brought to the Caribbean and the US, did they look like how many, if not the majority, of black people in the Caribbean and the US look today?

    I think the wider, more serious issue of this post is being overlooked. To me, the main problem I have with the argument that the guest blogger and Laurie are putting forward (whether intentionally or unintentionally, I don’t know) is that they are basically calling on black people to erase themselves from history. It’s been happening a lot recently, and I have been quietly observing the ramifications of this for a little while now.

    Do you like old movies? Check out Paramount’s 1934 version of Cleopatra, starring Claudette Colbert. A group of women in Rome are gossiping about Cleopatra and they say:
    “What could such a creature look like?…I heard she’s BLACK!”

    Yep, Paramount circa 1934 racist Hollywood era.

  21. Let’s look at Cleopatra some more. She was Macedonian-Greek on her father’s side. It is debated what her mother’s lineage was, but it is believed it was a mixture of Egyptian, Syrian, Nubian and Greek. Keep in mind too that Egyptians themselves were racially mixed at the time, because many different ethnic groups, including Africans, had settled along the Nile.

    Read Cleopatra: The Last Queen of Egypt by Joyce Tyldesley, and I quote:
    “and most foreigners who came to Egypt were assimilated into the wider population, “the Egyptian people showed a diverse range of racial characteristics, with red-headed, light-skinned Egyptians living alongside curly haired, darker-skinned neighbours.”

    But let a black person so much as make a suggestion that Cleopatra might have had some African ancestry and people, usually white, go ape-shit. “No way, how dare you, Cleopatra was Greek, she was European!”

    Even racist 1930’s Hollywood could acknowledge that she had might have had some African in her, but can we do that today?

    This is how erasure works. Over time, the world has been changed and re-arranged to fit the image of the people creating the images.
    Ancient Egyptians were the original race-mixers, and frequently took wives from Nubia, the neighbouring Black nation.
    The Egyptian empire for a period included ancient Sudan (the Kushites) who most definitely WERE black, and who ruled Egypt for a period of time. This is a fact. And remember when we are talking about ancient Egypt we are talking about thousands of years, not just a short period.

    None of this is mentioned by the guest blogger or Laurie. They just want you to believe it never happened, or to forget about it, completely. Or if you don’t forget about it, just accept that people who looked like you never played any part whatsoever in this chapter of history and that it should be of no relevance to you. And I can list more current examples of how this is happening right now, as we speak.

    That’s what erasure does, makes black people think that they didn’t exist at a certain period of time, unless it’s to fulfill a certain function that benefits a certain group. And yes, that ‘certain group’ nine out of ten times IS white people. Yeah, I said it.

    When someone tells you that you should only be concerned about your history beginning from transatlantic slavery, that to be interested in anything before that is “frivolous, patronizing and peripheral” (Laurie’s words, not mine), before you do anything else, ask yourself one question first:

    Who does this benefit?

  22. Marcus Garvey’s prophecy – “Look to Africa where a black king shall be crowned, he shall be the Redeemer” – was swiftly followed by the ascension of Haile Selassie as Emperor of Ethiopia. For the hurt of the daughter of my people am I hurt; I am black; as astonishment hath taken hold of me. Jeremiah 8:21

  23. I was in the upper school when Anthony and Cleopatra came out. I do not recall having any question whatsoever about the accuracy of Elizabeth Taylor’s representation. I was just as naive in my evaluation of Cecil B. Demille’s “The Ten Commandments” where White people depicted everyone even when they had to be painted to be marginally accurate. Egypt was about the pyramids and the Aswan High Dam. Many, many years later having learned the invaluable contributions of many, including but not limited to Wickham, Barrow, Grantley Adams, Busta, Williams, Rodney, Worrell and many other far to numerous to mention, I remain remarkably ignorant of matters pertaining to Africa and the contribution of the major part of my ancestry to the universe. You try and tell the average Brazillian that their country has the highest number of Black people outside of Nigeria. Their constitution recognizes many different races and colors. Black people there live in the least desirable areas and have the least of everything if one is to believe recent documentaries and publications involving Brazillian scholars and other authors. Black persons have, since the 1990s, have benefitted from an Affirmative Action type program introduced there.

    Egypt was ruled for years by Nubians. These are Black folk from the southern border of Egypt and the Northern part of the adjoining country. The nationality of the country is Egyptian and the ethnicities are many. It is after all a country with an extremely long history and is at the mouth of the Nile in Northern Africa. We know that conquerors/masters/rulers/invaders do not make sport.

    This discussion is quite valuable to me in that it lets me know how little I do know and how reluctant I am to put my neck on the block for everything that I write. This is in spite of the supreme confidence that I have in my indisputable facts. Back to the booksetc for me.

  24. Just adding my two cents worth, if you look at a map Egypt is on the African continent. Arabs were the last invaders hence the large Arab population. Why have the Arabs destroyed/descrated some of the ancient buildings to build their mosques? The head on the Sphinx looks negroid to me. Sum up Egypt is part of black African history. Why is the Irishman trying to tell us otherwise? Want to keep us blacks ignorant and divided. Shakaelu your post was marvelous, continue to keep watch.

  25. Comments about the Ancient Egyptians :

    “Europeans have claimed the non-African creation of Egypt in order to downgrade the position of African people in world history! They have laid the foundation of what they call Western Civilization on a structure that the Western mind did not create” . (Historian and Egyptologist, Dr. John Henrik Clark).

    Vivant Denon drew a sketch of the Sphinx of Giza in Egypt around 1798, prior to its defacement by Europeans (Napoleon soldiers) , he wrote :
    “…Though its proportions are colossal, the outline is pure and graceful; the expression of the head is mild, gracious, and tranquil; the character is African, but the mouth, and lips of which are thick, has a softness and delicacy of execution truly admirable; it seems real life and flesh. ”

    Aristotle – “Those who are too black are cowards, like for instance, the Egyptians and Ethiopians”.

    Aristotle – “Why are the Ethiopians and Egyptians bandy-legged? Is it because the bodies of living creatures become distorted by heat, like logs of wood when they become dry? The condition of their hair supports this theory; for it is curlier than that of other nations, and curliness is as it were crookedness of the hair.”
    (Physiognomics, Book XIV, p. 317) .

    Lycinus – “this (Egyptian) boy is not merely black; he has thick lips and his legs are too thin”.
    (Lucian, Navigations, paras 2-3).

    Ammiuanus Marcellinus “…the men of Egypt are mostly brown or black with a skinny desiccated look.”
    (Ammianus Marcellinus, Book XXII para 16) .

  26. It seems to me Mr. Ricky Jordan “Let’s embrace our heritage” in the July 04th Nation endorses much what Peter Laurie and the Irishman have said about Barbadian’s heritage, yet the ad hominen responses to his musings provide a deafening silence. What could possibly be the reason for this?

  27. And maybe because, unlike yourself and Laurie, he didn’t feel the need to pepper his contibution with insulting words that suggest black people are “bemuddling African history”, as though we don’t have enough commonsense to know what is or isn’t African history?

  28. And, unlike you and Laurie, he also didn’t try to suggest that African history is irrelevant and “frivolous”, he called out people who are into it as a fad, or concentrate on it exclusively – while ignoring Caribbean history. He didn’t say that they should be learning it all – unlike you and Laurie.

    Although, in the schools, it IS Caribbean history that is taught exclusively. I don’t know if this has changed somewhat, but in my days we only learnt about West Indian history at school and nothing about African history (especially pre-slavery). I had to learn that all on my own, late into my twenties – by doing my own research, books etc.
    Maybe, just maybe that is why there is such an emphasis on it now – because some of us have to make up for lost time.
    And the more you learn about it, the more you realize there is too learn.

  29. And perhaps it would help matters if ALL three of you would stop treating black people like they are some kind of monolith. There are plenty of us who only concentrate on 1. The Caribbean side of their history. There are others (like myself) who are 2. Focused on both. And there are others who 3. Are only interested in their history pre-slavery. And there are still others who 4. Couldn’t care less about history at all.

    If you have such a problem with #2 and #3, just ignore them and align yourself with the number ones only, there are plenty of them out there. And you can try to convert the number fours to your way of thinking – which shouldn’t be too difficult at all.

    Ok, I think I’m done now!

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  32. White racist historians have written black people out of history ,and replaced them with whites.This is because while Blacks were making history whites were still illiterate nomads in the central asian plains.
    When they arrived in Europe ( circa 1200 B.C .) they simply appropiated all that the Black man had built and accomplished.
    But bieng the degenerates that they are ,they couldn’t content themselves with simply having it , they felt compelled to claim creation of it. And to the end ,there is a huge white industry of fake artefacts,not only of Egyptians , but of all the original first civilisations created by black people.

  33. DNA Tribes Digest for February 1, 2013:

    Ramesses III and African Ancestry in the 20th Dynasty of New
    Kingdom Egypt

    These results indicate that both Ramesses III and Unknown Man E (possibly his son Pentawer)
    shared an ancestral component with present day populations of Sub-Saharan Africa.


    A previous issue of DNA Tribes Digest identified African related ancestry for King Tut and
    other royal mummies from the Amarna Period. In this issue, results indicate that the later pharaoh
    Ramesses III also inherited alleles that are most frequent in present day populations of Sub-Saharan
    Africa. This provides additional, independent evidence of Sub-Saharan African ancestry (possibly among
    several ancestral components) for pharaonic families of ancient Egypt.

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