What to do with Sargassum

Submitted by Robert D. Lucas,Ph.D. and CFS, Certified Food Scientist

The Editor

Barbados Underground

Bridgetown, Barbados

West Indies

Dear Sir/Madam,

The following is an overview of the uses of seaweed in the food industry. Suggestions are also proposed for prospective uses of the product.

Seaweeds belong to a group commonly called macro-algae or  hydrocolloids in the food industry. The  latter name derives from the propensity of the substances to form viscous dispersions and or gels when dispersed in water  (colloidal sols) and from the extensive hydroxyl groups with which the substances can form attachments with water molecules.. Hydrocolloids are a heterogeneous group of long chain polymers (polysaccharides{sugars} and proteins). Some of the amino acids in the protein chain contain sulfur (for example; methionine). These are broken down by sulfur using bacteria into hydrogen sulfide and other noxious substances. Hydrocolloids are widely used in the food industry because of their ability to modify the rheology of food systems This include two basic properties of food systems namely, flow behavior (viscosity) and mechanical solid (texture)property (Saha,D.and Bhattacharya,S.(2010) “Hydrocolloids as thickening and gelling agents in food: a critical review.” J. Food Sci.Technol. 47:6: 587-597.).

According to McHugh. J.D. 2003. “A Guide to the Seaweed Industry.” FAO. Fisheries Technical Paper #44:: “The seaweed industry provides a wide variety of products that have an estimated total annual value of US$ 5.5-6 billion. Food products for human consumption contribute about US$ 5 billion of this. Substances that are extracted from seaweeds -hydrocolloids – account for a large part of the remaining billion dollars, while smaller, miscellaneous uses, such as fertilizers and animal feed additives,  cosmetics and the manufacture of paper make up the rest.”

Hydrocolloids fall under the heading of functional food additives,. They are widely used in many food formulations to improve quality attributes and shelf-life. The two main uses are as thickening and gelling agents. As thickening agents, they find uses in soups, gravies, salad dressings, sauces and toppings while as gelling agents, they are extensively used in products like jam, jelly, marmalade, restructured foods and low sugar/calorie gels (Saha and Bhattacharya. 2010).

Seaweeds are classified in commerce according to pigmentation as: red(used for agar and carrageenan in the food and microbiology) and  brown or green. Sargassum seaweeds (SW) are brown. Brown seaweeds are used for the manufacture of aginlates for the food industry. Apart from being thickeners, alginates have some applications that are not related to either their viscosity or gel properties. They act as stabilizers in ice cream; addition of alginates reduce the formation of ice crystals during freezing, giving a smooth product  Alginate gels are used in re-structured or re-formed food products. For example, re-structured meats can be made by taking meat pieces, binding them together and shaping them to resemble usual cuts of meat, such as nuggets, roasts, meat loaves, even steaks.They are also used in the controlled release of medicinal drugs and other chemicals. In some applications, the active ingredient is placed in a calcium alginate bead and slowly released as the bead is exposed in the appropriate environment.

Available information on Sargassum natans and fluitans, the two species of primary concern across the Caribbean, is sparse (Michelle Morrison, CPI and Daniel Gray. The Caribbean Council,  Anaerobic Digestion Economic Feasibility Study: Generating energy from waste, sewage and Sargassum Seaweed in the OECS :CPI Report Number: CPI-SP-RP-141(31/01/2017).It was also concluded that it was not economically feasible to generate bio-gas using anaerobic digestion since SW have low biochemical methane potentials (BMP). Anaerobiosis using pure culture techniques were apparently not used. Using pure culture techniques one can swamp the indigeneous microflora of the substrate with the microflora of choice, thereby controlling the rate of the process using continuous anaerobiosis (by using pure cultures other organisms that can divert the production of methane are effectively inhibited. Must also be noted that the carbohydrate content of seaweed as a substrate varies during the course of the season. According to Lenstra and others (.2011).Ocean Seaweed Biomass For large scale bio-fuel production Energy Research Center,Netherlands (ECN) S. natans has the following chemical composition :on a dry weight basis(dw) Proteins;6.59%; Fat 0.54%;Carbohydrate 76.43%; Phosphorus  0.082; Potassium19.56%; Energy (kJ/100g dry matter) 1410.

SW structurely consists of linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units linked by(beta) b 1-3 glycosidic bonds. In some cases b1-6 glycosidic bonds occur. Since the cell wall of SW contains cellulose. the biomass must be pretreated and  then (1) treated with (hydrolyzed ) cellulase enzyme systems supplemented with β-glucosidase followed by(2) fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae(yeasts). Having stage(1)immediately followed by stage (2), result in what is known as a two-stage process which is economically more expensive. It is better to have stage (1) and (2) operating simultaneous, using continuous fermentation in the production of alcohol This can be done by the use of immobilized enzyme technology. In immobilized enzymes, the enzymes are enmeshed in a membrane (made of aginlate) which facilitates the reuse of the enzymes reducing costs and increasing reaction efficiencies.

SW can be used as an animal feed for ruminants only at present, since poultry do not have the necessary enzyme systems required to handle b glycosidic links. Feed from SW, has a low protein content  when compared to soy. To augment the protein content, SW can be used as a substrate for the production of single cell protein. Using continuous fermentation techniques, protein yields as high as 40% on a  dry-weight basis can be obtained. Single cell protein can be used in the formulation of non-ruminant rations as I having been advocating for more than twenty years (letters to the Editor, Barbados Advocate). Thinking long term, the gene for the beta glycoside using gene editing techniques can be inserted into a bacterium found normally in the gut microflora of non-ruminants. The edited bacterium with the added gene can then be reinserted into the gut microflora of the non-ruminant by incorporating it into the rations.. The non-ruminant is now able to utilize feeds made from SW.  Alternatively, SW itself can be gene edited and the gene for the  b condition changed to the a state, making it possible to have feed that can be utilized by both ruminants and non-ruminants directly.

Brown macroalgae, Sargassum ssp., are considered as a potential biomass source for energy production due to their relatively fast growth rates, ease of harvesting, and low pre-production cost. Sargassum fluitans, S. natans, and S. filipendula are three of the most abundant macroalgae species found at Puerto Rico’s coasts. The lipids content of Sargassum spp. ranges between 1.0 and 2.5% (total lipids)Diaz-Vazquez and others (2015) “Demineralization of Sargassum spp. macroalgae biomass: selective hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production.”Front.Energy Res. 3:6..

If the temperature and pressure  of carbon dioxide are both increased  to be at or above its critical point ,it can adopt properties midway between a gas and a liquid. More specifically, it behaves as a super critical fluid above its critical temperature 31.10 °C, (87.98 °F) and critical pressure of 72.9 atm, (7.39 MPa, 1,071 psi), expanding to fill its container like a gas but with a density like that of a liquid. Under these conditions carbon dioxide(CO2) acts as a solvent and removes fats/oils from a product. It is commonly used in the food industry in the manufacture of decaffeinated coffee. This method can be used to extract oil from SW without the residual harmful effects of the use of hexane, the solvent currently in  wide spread use.

SW is prevalent throughout the earth’s oceans. There has been a lot of noise locally about how to handle the problem. As far as I am concerned, there is no reason why the approach used in the fishing industry should not be adopted. With the use of drones and appropriate algorithms or biosensors one can easily detect the position of SW. Using algorithms, the difference in color of the ocean where the SW is versus where it is absent can be used to pinpoint the product. Alternatively, since S.natans has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen( by an associated epiphyte or cyanobacteria), a build up of or a depletion of nitrates can be used to detect SW, since the background levels in the ocean will be different. Similarly,the same should hold good for carbon dioxide(CO2) which is utilized during photosynthesis. Finally, there should be a temperature differential, due to the metabolic processes underway in the developing SW and the ocean’s background temperatures.  Lenstra and others (.2011) have outlined measures for fishing and harvesting SW. Recently a Caribbean country purchased two seaweed harvesters. So, instead of waiting for SW to come to Barbados, Barbados should go hunting for it.

Sincerely,

Robert D. Lucas,Ph.D. and CFS

Certified Food Scientist.

72 comments

  • @Dr. Lucas

    On behalf of the BU household thank you for your submission on what is a topical and nettlesome issue facing Barbados and other Caribbean islands. Others who follow the blog will continue to benefit no doubt. BU will update your next submission in the next rotation.

    Thanks for sharing.

    Like

  • So, instead of waiting for SW to come to Barbados, Barbados should go hunting for it.

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    Agree with that, once it is profitable!!

    Like

  • Enjoyed the Biochemistry here Dr.
    But this article is way over the head of the standard BU reader starting from the blogmaster back down to ……………….

    Like

  • John
    It seems that there are many things that can be done with this seaweed, but local investors must be willing to participate in the production of any potential bounty

    Like

  • First of all to make seaweed a RELIABLE BUSINESS VENTURE you need a reliable supply. Sargasium is an infrequent visitor to Barbados, comes in limited quantities, most years does not appear at all. Typical Bagan thinking that this could be developed into a pratical and profitable business venture. Yes other jurisdications have made it work, this does not mean it will work in Barbados. If memory serves me correctly Barbados has only experienced sargassium issues twice in the last 15 years for no more than a 3 month duration.

    Hurricanes maybe more reliable supply, let’s see if we can make a business plan about hurricanes.

    Rational thinking, Bajan style.

    Like

  • it is particularly noteworthy that Dr Lucas ended his splendid informative article in perfect English, with these words…………………………….

    So, instead of waiting for SW to come to Barbados, Barbados should go hunting for it.

    In this way, there would be a reliable supply, and seaweed would be a very viable venture

    It seems that some one here missed out while learning to read that little book which said
    THIS IS DAN
    THIS IS A VAN
    DAN IS A MAN
    DAN IS THE MAN IN THE VAN

    I PARTICULARLY SAID THAT this article is way over the head of the standard BU reader ah lie?

    Like

  • I love Hydrocolloid plasters. Good article.

    Like

  • Bernard Codrington

    Excellent article Dr. Lucas. Clear lucid style.Not above our understanding at all. I hope that sargassum is as seasonal as sugar cane. In which case we can make an industry of it.

    Like

  • mr codrington, sir
    can you explain the significance of the beta bonds in the structure of the seaweed with reference to its use to non-ruminants?
    why do beta glucosidases needed for some applications?
    help us understand these things, sir

    Like

  • millertheanunnaki

    @ Georgie Porgie July 14, 2018 9:24 AM
    “it is particularly noteworthy that Dr Lucas ended his splendid informative article in perfect English, with these words…………………………….
    So, instead of waiting for SW to come to Barbados, Barbados should go hunting for it.
    In this way, there would be a reliable supply, and seaweed would be a very viable venture”

    What’s so novel about that?

    The Chinese and other enterprising countries in the South and Far East of Asia have been doing that for a long time now.
    And not only fishing for seaweed which makes up an integral input to their culinary cupboard and to their medicine cabinet of Mother Nature’s concoctions but also the valuable fish stocks which are processed, canned and exported (returned) to the same ‘turd’ world countries like Barbados at a hefty profit and with the spin-off creation of sustainable jobs.

    You ought to be asking your Bajan government to demand from the Chinese their investment in such areas of the now ‘arising’ Blue economy instead of sunset industries like hotels and retail shops to sell cheap Chinese made trinkets.

    Barbados has reached an only one-direction fork in its economic existence and can no longer afford academic talkers and parasitic bullshitters but those who ‘Can’ and not only ‘Teach’.

    Liked by 1 person

  • Georgie Porgie
    July 14, 2018 8:36 AM

    John
    It seems that there are many things that can be done with this seaweed, but local investors must be willing to participate in the production of any potential bounty

    ++++++++++++++++++++

    This is a test of the “Private Sector”!!!

    I don’t think it is up to it!!

    I don’t think they can do the feasibility studies necessary to justify the investment nor do they have the ability to follow through if there is a market for whatever product is possible.

    Fifty two years of “big government” has killed any entrepreneurial spirit of that scale that existed once upon a time.

    Like

  • mr codrington , sir
    can you explain to the BU bros this statement below?

    SW structurely consists of linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units linked by(beta) b 1-3 glycosidic bonds. In some cases b1-6 glycosidic bonds occur. Since the cell wall of SW contains cellulose. the biomass must be pretreated and then (1) treated with (hydrolyzed ) cellulase enzyme systems supplemented with β-glucosidase followed by(2) fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae(yeasts).

    Like

  • Gotta agree with GP.
    Way above my head.
    Unable to make a contribution, but I have a question “Can we make a roti with it?”
    Do you see the van
    Do you see the man
    Do you see TheO in the van
    🙂 Have a great day 🙂

    Liked by 1 person

  • we often hear this bovine excrement
    “Barbados has reached an only one-direction fork in its economic existence and can no longer afford academic talkers and parasitic bullshitters but those who ‘Can’ and not only ‘Teach’.”

    BUT WHAT I HAVE OBSERVED AS A MYOPIC SCHOLAR, IS THAT MUCH THAT I CAN DO RESULTED FROM WHAT SOME ONE TAUGHT ME

    STARTING WITH A SIMPLE OBSCURE THOUGHT BY “A TEACHER WHO COULD ONLY TEACH” I WAS ABLE TO APPLY THOSE THOUGHTS TO DO MANY THINGS AND EVEN SHAPE POLICY ah lie?

    Again, Dr Lucas’ excellent essay ended with the words ……..So, instead of waiting for SW to come to Barbados, Barbados should go hunting for it.

    ONE OBVIOUS COROLLARY OF THIS IS THAT………In this way, there would be a reliable supply, and seaweed would be a very viable venture”

    CLEARLY THERE IS NOTHING “So novel about that,” BUT SIMPLY COLLECTING THE SEAWEED WOULD BE NECESSARY TO PROCEED, ah lie?

    big ventures begin with ideas that are not novel………..just ideas that were not previously exploited ah lie?

    Like

  • Bernard Codrington

    Dr. GP at 10 :53 AM

    What part of that pellucidly clear statement of bio-chemistry do you not understand? And why in your arrogance do you believe our brothers on BU, other than yourself, do not understand?

    Like

  • @Miller

    Why not complete your comment?

    Why have the Japanese and Chinese who are marauders in our waters seen the benefit of harvesting sargassum seaweed? These are two countries with agriculture and manufacturing capacity.

    Liked by 1 person

  • re What part of that pellucidly clear statement of bio-chemistry do you not understand

    THE SAME BIOCHEMISTRY I ASKED YOU TO EXPLAIN ……WHICH YOU FIND TO BE PELLUCIDLY CLEAR, SIR

    AND WHERE DID I SAY THAT I AM THE ONLY ONE ON BU THAT CAN UNDERSTAND THE ARTICLE?

    Like

  • friends
    it seems that mr codrington who understands Biochemistry pellucidly, is unwilling to help us in our understanding today

    Like

  • Georgie: Biochemistry is your thing–not mine for sure–perhaps not Bernie’s either. I would bet anything that you won’t dare tangle with Bernie when it comes to economics, which I believe is his thing.

    Liked by 1 person

  • Are-we-there-yet

    GP re. your 11:13 am post;

    You asked above ” AND WHERE DID I SAY THAT I AM THE ONLY ONE ON BU THAT CAN UNDERSTAND THE ARTICLE? “

    You did’nt explicitly say that, but you did say earlier “But this article is way over the head of the standard BU reader starting from the blogmaster back down to ……………….”

    Obviously, you did not say that you were the “only one” on BU who could understand the article, but Mr Codrington merely made the point that it was indeed an excellent article, understandable by himself and others who are presumably not trained biochemists and therefore understandable by the standard BU reader, i.e.“Excellent article Dr. Lucas. Clear lucid style.Not above OUR understanding at all.”

    GP; You do seem to have a compulsion to explicitly look down on others who post on BU.

    Dr Lucas’ article was a good one that clearly set out the various ways that sargassum could be used (albiet venturing into some unnecessarily arcane biochemistry – perhaps merely to emphasize his biochemistry and food science credentials) by the general readership of this blog to see the wide range of possibilities or opportunities that the Sargassum might offer us for its exploitation .

    Dr Lucas’ article added significantly to the “takeway” or actionable points in the general body of posts on BU about Sargassum.

    Liked by 1 person

  • Simple Simon July 14, 2018 12:21 PM

    Georgie: Biochemistry is your thing–not mine for sure–perhaps not Bernie’s either. I would bet anything that you won’t dare tangle with Bernie when it comes to economics, which I believe is his thing.
    YOU CAN BE SURE BOUT DAT SIMON!
    I AM ASKING TO MAN ONLY TO EXPLAIN A FEW THINGS THAT HE SAID WAS PELLUCIDLY CLEAR ABOUT THE BIOCHEMISTRY THAT HE OBVIOUSLY UNDERSTOOD FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE BU FRATERNITY/SORORITY

    Like

  • Bernard Codrington

    @ Georgie Porgie at 10 :53 AM

    Again I ask what part of the biochemical process described by Dr. Lucas in the quoted excerpt do you not understand? Or with which you do not agree? I am still trying to unmask your arrogance ? Or is it ignorance?

    Like

  • RE GP re. your 11:13 am post;
    You asked above ” AND WHERE DID I SAY THAT I AM THE ONLY ONE ON BU THAT CAN UNDERSTAND THE ARTICLE? “
    You did’nt explicitly say that,

    YOU ARE CORRECT THERE, I DID NOT

    but you did say earlier “But this article is way over the head of the standard BU reader starting from the blogmaster back down to ……………….”

    I SURE DID, AND IT DOES NOT SEEM THAT I HAVE NOT YET BEEN PROVED TO BE INCORRECT ah lie?

    Re Obviously, you did not say that you were the “only one” on BU who could understand the article, but Mr Codrington merely made the point that it was indeed an excellent article, understandable by himself and others who are presumably not trained biochemists and therefore understandable by the standard BU reader, i.e.“Excellent article Dr. Lucas. Clear lucid style.Not above OUR understanding at all.”

    GREAT! JOLLY GOOD SHOW!
    ALL I HAVE DONE IS ASKED HIM A FEW QUESTIONS.
    THAT IS CALLED “CHALLENGING” ON BU ah lie?
    CAN YOU HELP US WITH THE ANSWERS? LOL

    Re GP; You do seem to have a compulsion to explicitly look down on others who post on BU.

    NOT AT ALL. I AM JUST “CHALLENGING” LIKE MANY ON BU HAVE :CHALLENGED “ ME ON BU MANY TIMES IN THE PAST ah lie?

    Re Dr Lucas’ article was a good one that clearly set out the various ways that sargassum could be used
    THIS IS VERY TRUE

    RE (albiet venturing into some unnecessarily arcane biochemistry – perhaps merely to emphasize his biochemistry and food science credentials) by the general readership of this blog to see the wide range of possibilities or opportunities that the Sargassum might offer us for its exploitation .
    THIS IS NOT TRUE AT ALL
    HOW IS THE BIOCHEMISTRY HE CITED UNNECESSARY OR ARCANE?

    I WOULD THINK THAT THE BIOCHEMISTRY IS THE PUNCH LINE, AND THE QUESTIONS I ASKED OF GREAT IMPORT THEREFORE

    WHY DO YOU THINK THAT HE IS “merely emphasizing e his biochemistry and food science credentials? And WHY SHOULD HE NOT BE PERMIUTTED SO TO DO? HAS HE NOT EARNED THESE CREDENTIALS?

    RE Dr Lucas’ article added significantly to the “takeway” or actionable points in the general body of posts on BU about Sargassum.

    CAN YOU TELL US IN WHAT WAY?

    Like

  • RE Bernard Codrington July 14, 2018 1:15 PM

    @ Georgie Porgie at 10 :53 AM

    Again I ask what part of the biochemical process described by Dr. Lucas in the quoted excerpt do you not understand?
    AND I AM AGAIN ASKING YOU TO EXPLAIN THE BIOCHEMISTRYHE CITED THAT YOU FOUND SO PELLUCIDLY CLEAR. LOL

    RE Or with which you do not agree?
    WHERE DID I SAY THAT I DID NOT AGREE WITH THE LEARNED DR.

    RE I am still trying to unmask your arrogance ? Or is it ignorance? YOU ARE FAILING IN UNMASKING BOTH SIR LOL LOL

    Like

  • MR CODRINGTON SIR
    I AM MERELY TRYING TO GET YOU TO DEMONSTRATE YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE
    BIOCHEMISTRY WHICH WE BOTH AGREE WAS MADE PELLUCIDLY CLEAR BY DR LUCAS. THAT’S ALL. LOL

    OH IT IS FUN TO CHALLENGE IN DE BU RUM SHOP LIKE SOME CHALLENGED ME IN DE PAST LOL

    Like

  • Bernard Codrington

    Georgie Porgie

    Glad to learn. I will not waste any more time with you then. Carry on smartly.

    Like

  • @Are We, why thank you for crystallizing the simple non science fact that this excellent article by Dr. Lucas was full of “unnecessarily arcane biochemistry”. I see no reason that he has to validate his bonafides here but maybe you are right there too.

    Our education of sargassum as a business oportunity from his writing was excellent sans the heavy lifting science much suited for a piece to his colleagues or a business client…

    For the average lay BU reader this para nailed a key understanding: “The seaweed industry provides a wide variety of products that have an estimated total annual value of US$ 5.5-6 billion. Food products for human consumption contribute about US$ 5 billion of this. Substances that are extracted from seaweeds -hydrocolloids – account for a large part of the remaining billion dollars, while smaller, miscellaneous uses, such as fertilizers and animal feed additives, cosmetics and the manufacture of paper make up the rest.” “… as too his summary para.

    I was recently reading about Tesla’s production hell on the Model 3 mass market vehicle. There was no minutia on the metallurgy compounds with which they contended nor the chemistry of their battery apparatus which compounded their manufacturing crisis…..and if there were such it would not have made a jot of difference to the key point on the business level which noted that they are finally getting close to full production of this EV model 3s after months of dire doubts…and thus climbing out of a deep hole of private debt financings.

    The sargassum science was instructive (as a point of reference/knowledge) but similarly quite obviously unnecessary in such detail to Dr. Lucas’ main point of the business potentials of the product.

    Like

  • Are-we-there-yet

    GP; Here’s my summarized version of Dr Lucas’ article where most references are removed and the text simplified:

    The following is an overview of the uses of seaweed in the food industry. Suggestions are also proposed for prospective uses of the product.

    Seaweeds belong to a group commonly called hydrocolloids in the food industry. These substances form viscous dispersions and or gels when dispersed in water. Hydrocolloids are a heterogeneous group of long chain polymers (including sugars and proteins). Some of the amino acids in the protein chain contain sulfur. These are broken down by sulfur using bacteria into hydrogen sulfide and other noxious substances. Hydrocolloids are widely used in the food industry because of their ability to modify viscosity and textural properties of food systems.

    The seaweed industry provides a wide variety of products that have an estimated total annual value of US$ 5.5-6 billion. Food products for human consumption contribute about US$ 5 billion of this. Substances that are extracted from seaweeds -hydrocolloids – account for a large part of the remaining, while smaller, miscellaneous uses, such as fertilizers and animal feed additives, cosmetics and the manufacture of paper make up the rest.

    Hydrocolloids fall under the heading of functional food additives. They are widely used in many food formulations mainly as thickening and gelling agents. As thickening agents, they find uses in soups, gravies, salad dressings, sauces and toppings while as gelling agents, they are extensively used in products like jam, jelly, marmalade, restructured foods and low sugar/calorie gels.

    Seaweeds are classified in commerce according to pigmentation as: red, brown or green. Sargassum seaweeds (SW) are brown. Brown seaweeds are used for the manufacture of alginates for the food industry. Apart from being thickeners, alginates have some applications that are not related to either their viscosity or gel properties. They act as stabilizers in ice cream, giving a smooth product Alginate gels are used in re-structured or re-formed food products. For example, re-structured meats can be made by taking meat pieces, binding them together and shaping them to resemble usual cuts of meat, such as nuggets, roasts, meat loaves, even steaks.They are also used in the controlled release of medicinal drugs and other chemicals. In some applications, the active ingredient is placed in a calcium alginate bead and slowly released as the bead is exposed in the appropriate environment.

    Available information on Sargassum natans and fluitans, the two species of primary concern across the Caribbean, is sparse. Michelle Morrison, CPI and Daniel Gray in Anaerobic Digestion Economic Feasibility Study: Generating energy from waste, sewage and Sargassum Seaweed in the OECS, “concluded that it was not economically feasible to generate bio-gas using anaerobic digestion since SW have low biochemical methane potentials (BMP)”. It must also be noted that the carbohydrate content of seaweed as a substrate varies during the course of the season. Sargassum natans has the following chemical composition :on a dry weight basis(dw) Proteins;6.59%; Fat 0.54%;Carbohydrate 76.43%; Phosphorus 0.082; Potassium19.56%; Energy (kJ/100g dry matter) 1410.

    SW structurely consists of linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units. Since the cell wall of SW contains cellulose. the biomass must be pretreated and then treated with (hydrolyzed ) cellulase enzyme systems supplemented with β-glucosidase followed by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae(yeasts). This two-stage process is economically more expensive.

    SW can be used as an animal feed for ruminants only at present, since poultry do not have the necessary enzyme systems required to handle b glycosidic links. Feed from SW, has a low protein content when compared to soy. To augment the protein content, SW can be used as a substrate for the production of single cell protein. Single cell protein can be used in the formulation of non-ruminant rations. Thinking long term, the gene for the beta glycoside using gene editing techniques can be inserted into a bacterium found normally in the gut microflora of non-ruminants. The edited bacterium with the added gene can then be reinserted into the gut microflora of the non-ruminant by incorporating it into the rations. The non-ruminant is now able to utilize feeds made from SW. Alternatively, SW itself can be gene edited and the gene for the b condition changed to the a state, making it possible to have feed that can be utilized by both ruminants and non-ruminants directly.

    Brown Sargassum spp., are considered as a potential biomass source for energy production due to their relatively fast growth rates, ease of harvesting, and low pre-production cost. Sargassum fluitans, S. natans, and S. filipendula are three of the most abundant macroalgae species found at Puerto Rico’s coasts. The lipids content of Sargassum spp. ranges between 1.0 and 2.5% (total lipids)

    If the temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide are both increased to be at or above its critical point ,it can adopt properties midway between a gas and a liquid. Under these conditions carbon dioxide(CO2) acts as a solvent and removes fats/oils from a product. It is commonly used in the food industry in the manufacture of decaffeinated coffee. This method can be used to extract oil from SW without the residual harmful effects of the use of hexane, the solvent currently in wide spread use.

    SW is prevalent throughout the earth’s oceans. There has been a lot of noise locally about how to handle the problem. As far as I am concerned, there is no reason why the approach used in the fishing industry should not be adopted.

    With the use of drones and appropriate algorithms or biosensors one can easily detect the position of SW. Using algorithms based on the difference in color of the ocean where the SW is, versus where it is absent, can be used to pinpoint the SW. Alternatively, since S.natans has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen ( by an associated epiphyte or cyanobacteria), a build up of or a depletion of nitrates can be used to detect SW, since the background levels in the ocean will be different. Similarly,the same should hold good for carbon dioxide(CO2) which is utilized during photosynthesis. Finally, there should be a temperature differential, due to the metabolic processes underway in the developing SW and the ocean’s background temperatures.

    Lenstra and others (.2011) have outlined measures for fishing and harvesting SW. Recently a Caribbean country purchased two seaweed harvesters. So, instead of waiting for SW to come to Barbados, Barbados should go hunting for it.

    Liked by 1 person

  • RE Georgie Porgie
    Glad to learn. I will not waste any more time with you then. Carry on smartly.
    I UNDERSTAND THAT YOU DON’T UNDERSTAND THE SALIENT BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE ARTICLE AT ALL.
    I UNDERSTAND SIR. I REALLY DO

    Now to the real mock sport
    Here comes the SUPER SCIENTIST who jumps in thus

    @Are We, why thank you for crystallizing the simple non science fact that this excellent article by Dr. Lucas was full of “unnecessarily arcane biochemistry”.

    BIRD BRAIN THERE IS NO ARCANE BIOCHEMISTRY IN HIS ARTICLE
    HOW CAN THEY BE?
    SEA WEED IS AN ORGANIC /BIOCHEMICAL COMPOUND IDIOT
    SO THE DR HAD TO INTRODUCE THE BIOCHEMISTRY…FOR THAT IS THE CRUX OF THE MATTER
    UNDERSTANDING ASPECTS OF THE BIOCHEMISTRY IS A MUST TO EFFECT THE APPLICATIONS HE CITED IN THE “EDUCATION” HE GAVE

    THE REST OF WHAT YOU WROTE IS AS USUAL ON SCIENTIFIC MATTERS…..PURE BULL SHIT

    HEAR THE DUMMY Our education of sargassum as a business oportunity from his writing was excellent sans the heavy lifting science much suited for a piece to his colleagues or a business client… WELL THEN YOU CANT UNDERSTAND WHAT HE SAYS JUST AS I STATED INITIALLY ah lie?

    @ Are-we-there-yet
    RE GP; Here’s my summarized version of Dr Lucas’ article where most references are removed and the text simplified:
    WHY MUST I READ YOUR LONG SUMMARY WHEN I HAVE ALREADY EXTRACTED THE SALIENT BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE ARTICLE THAT THE MAN MADE PELLUCIDLY CLEAR according to CODRINGTON, THE BIOCHEMIST ? LOL LOL

    SW structurely consists of linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units. Since the cell wall of SW contains cellulose. the biomass must be pretreated and then treated with (hydrolyzed ) cellulase enzyme systems supplemented with β-glucosidase followed by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae(yeasts). This two-stage process is economically more expensive.
    SW can be used as an animal feed for ruminants only at present, since poultry do not have the necessary enzyme systems required to handle b glycosidic links.

    SURELY THE SIX LINES ABOVE STATES THE SIMPLEST IMPORTANT BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE ARTICLE ah lie?

    Like

  • there was a time in de past I would just easily submit the relevant very simple Biochemistry

    but why should I? even though the devil is not around on BU these days to tell me that all this info is readily available on the internet

    i at least gave wunnah the info to consider to be told by Mr Codrington that I am arrogant and ignorant

    how i enjoy mocking in de rum shop lol

    Like

  • Are-we-there-yet

    dpD;

    Dr. Lucas is a qualified expert in Food Science and its associated Sciences, including the application of Genetic Engineering techniques to Food Science. He is therefore very comfortable with writing articles destined for use by or the sight of his peers. In such articles it is the norm, indeed it is required, that a particular style be used. This forum does not have such standards but I have tried to show above that the article can be modified to be easily understood by all the denizens of BU without losing the main points made re. the ongoing topic of the alternative uses of Sargassum weeds. Dr Lucas made a number of points in his post that illustrated where he felt the research could be directed and some that ruled out some areas that were mooted earlier on BU. Eg. that methane yield was low; That biomass yield could be reasonable; That producing feeds for non-ruminants need much more futre research; That there might be some utility in investing in harvesters for SW to operate before they actually reach barbados; That mapping the position of the SW masses might be possible using avant garde techniques based on physiological products from the metabolism of the SW; etc.

    Like

  • Patrick Harewood

    Dr. Lucas over the years has done a great deal of literature searches and written numerous articles some though controversial. However, I am yet to see any technical information based on research he has conducted in Barbados. Why is his expertise not being put to good use? Just asking!

    Like

  • @ Dr. Georgie Porgie

    I am going to share something with you that IF YOU DID NOT KNOW, you now know, though heheheheh, “knowing” as little of you as i would pretend, it is of little import to you.

    The Government of Barbados is bereft of ideas.

    So much so that it made and appeal for bajans and other well wishers to send their ideas into ideas4barbados@gis.gov.bb (i think). Why anone would use a 4 there confuses me but….

    Barbados Underground is the de-facto participatory Workspace for the Government of Barbados under this BLP administration.

    For it is here the intelligencia come.

    If you note carefully, whatever topic that they need responses on, AND RAPIDLY, it gets published here among the dribblers like de ole man, and AC and dat feller George Brafwit de cvntsultant.

    I call it the Innocuous Inserts where 25 to 35 serious comments are made and Whaplax, the following week Abrahams and de rest uh dem talking de same subjects SOMETIMES WITHOUT EVEN CHANGING A WORD!!!

    So dont you think that when you come here and mention the encounters you had wid dem racists doctors dat Mia and she Ministers in to Ministry of Whatever doan see dem comments and tek notice

    Dis is (unfortunately) her think tank that she, and they, the wiser ones among her ministers harvest, LIKE THE ECONOMIC ADVISORS at the *** does be harvesting and watching heavy rollers like Pachamama.

    And I dun know the opinion that you have of all we posters, even including meself (I like you Hero to Zero comment heheheheheh) but when a feller ent got de medicine dat dem medical TV programs does give a feller to mek he go sleep and let dem can cut off various body parts, THEY HAVE TO USE A BOTTLE OF WHISKY, and a branch cross he mouf!

    That is where we are at 2018 AND IT IS PRECISELY WHAT WE ARE DOING HERE ON BU, believe it or not

    Here is an Excerpt from a Think Tank Document that can be found at

    https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://duckduckgo.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1009&context=think_tanks

    It reads reads “…Think tanks are public-policy research analysis and engagement organizations that generate policy-oriented research, analysis, and advice on domestic and international issues, thereby enabling policymakers and the public to make informed decisions about public policy. Think tanks may be affiliated or independent institutions that are structured as permanent bodies, not adhoc commissions. These institutions often act as a bridge between the academic and policymaking communities and between states and civil society, serving in the public interest as independent voices that translate applied and basic research into a language that is understandable, reliable, and accessible for policymakers and the public…”

    We DO NOT HAVE THAT TYPE OF THINK TANK STRUCTURE THAT IS RELIED ON TO TAKE US OUT OF WHERE WE HAVE BEEN POST INDEPENDENCE? in fact page 36 of said report (albeit dated) says Barbados has 9 think tanks but after an exhaustive search of the 172 page document not one of these institutions were found by name (I ent going was time to look for no mo’)

    Liked by 1 person

  • @ The Honourable Blogmaster your assistance please with a response for Dr. GP thank you

    Like

  • After that exercise you can see why I say the Private Sector is not up to it.

    I can’t imagine COW, Bizzy or any of the other captains of industry being able to mount any economic exercise to explore the feasibility of harvesting seaweed.

    They would literally be out of their depth!!

    The ability to work with others who know a whole lot more than you do is not part of the psyche.

    All we can do is watch and see what other countries do … maybe there is no economic feasibility, may be there is.

    Like

  • Harvesting seaweed is an industry in Nova Scotia and other eastern provnces in Canada. I usually buy a seaweed extract from the Chinese/East Indian stores to make an almond flavoured dessert similar to Jello. My Indian friends who are vegetarians and dont use gelatine (animal) also use the sea weed. i have also started using psyllium especially in my preserves which helps me to reduce the sugar.

    Liked by 1 person

  • Sargassum is doing the job nature designed it (for) to remove the toxins from the ocean
    As usual man not understanding the clinical role this foul smelling sea weed does as buffer between man and the enviroment rushes forward with a concocted ideas as to how Sargassum can be culitivated into becoming a big money maker
    Indeed the captalist mind is warped and totally out of control and needs to be harnassed

    Like

  • As early as 10:43 AM today I asked mr Codrington who asserted “Excellent article Dr. Lucas. Clear lucid style.Not above our understanding at all”….the very simple question thus

    “ sir
    can you explain the significance of the beta bonds in the structure of the seaweed with reference to its use to non-ruminants?
    why are beta glucosidases needed for some applications?
    help us understand these things, sir

    And at 10:53 AM I asked
    mr codrington , sir
    can you explain to the BU bros this statement below?
    SW structurely consists of linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units linked by(beta) b 1-3 glycosidic bonds. In some cases b1-6 glycosidic bonds occur. Since the cell wall of SW contains cellulose. the biomass must be pretreated and then (1) treated with (hydrolyzed ) cellulase enzyme systems supplemented with β-glucosidase followed by(2) fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae(yeasts).

    Seeing that Mr Codrington got honours in his PhD studies in Biochemistry, instead of bringing light to the forum, he wrote at 11:10
    Dr. GP at 10 :53 AM
    What part of that pellucidly clear statement of bio-chemistry do you not understand? And why in your arrogance do you believe our brothers on BU, other than yourself, do not understand?

    I still cant understand why this PhD in Biochemistry would not help us with this elementary Biochem, seeing that he knows that GP is ignorant on these matters.

    The best part is when the SCIENTOLOGIST DPD thought that some fellas would put some licks on me, he tried to pile on pun poor likkle GP who just trying to have a likkle fun in de rum shop cause the cricket aint so good today so far, and Serena done get beat quick quick

    Like

  • @ the Honourable Blogmaster

    Oh DAVID OF OLD, dis is you fault doah!

    I you had harn-assed this land based sargassum EUPHEMISM FOR BLIGHT, a long time ago, we would not be heah being punished

    [[Man please share wid de ole man all de names of de identities please

    Send dem in square brackets man so dat only i get dem.

    Whuloss it is you whose mind is warped and totally out of control doah.

    I see whu you plan is – sic AC pun us until she “harn-assed all uh we and when we cant tek no more harn-aass-ing all uh we going relinquish this harnass and run way

    Liked by 1 person

  • Are-we-there-yet

    GP;

    After you wrote that “But this article is way over the head of the standard BU reader starting from the blogmaster back down to ……………….” you now have me really confused by your post above.

    Do you understand what arcane means? ….. “understood by only a few. obscure”. You’re now denying the whole thrust of your original point.

    You said: “Are We, why thank you for crystallizing the simple non science fact that this excellent article by Dr. Lucas was full of “unnecessarily arcane biochemistry”. BIRD BRAIN, THERE IS NO ARCANE BIOCHEMISTRY IN HIS ARTICLE. HOW CAN THEY BE? SEA WEED IS AN ORGANIC /BIOCHEMICAL COMPOUND IDIOT”

    No!! Seaweed is NOT an organic / biochemical COMPOUND, It is a living organism, in our case, Sargassum spp.

    Anyhow, Uh Gone, no more troll feeding today.

    Liked by 1 person

  • bajans
    these products might be good for diabetics since you cant access the glucose molecules in these polysaccharides as they are held together by beta bonds……….and humans can not break
    beta bonds except the one in lactose

    Like

  • RE No!! Seaweed is NOT an organic / biochemical COMPOUND, It is a living organism, in our case, Sargassum spp.

    ACTUALLY IT IS AN ORGANIC COMPOUND COMPOSED OF GLUCOSE UNITS HELD TOGETHER BY BETA 1-3 AND BETA 1-6 BONDS LOL

    ARE YOU SAYING THAT A LIVING ORGANISM LIKE A WEED CAN NOT BE AN ORGANIC COMPOUND?

    ARE YOU SAYING THAT A LIVING ORGANISM LIKE A WEED IS NOT A BIOCHEMICAL COMPOUND?

    I LIKE WHEN BIOCHEMISTRY ILLITERATES CHALLENGE ME BOUT BIOCHEMISTRY

    Like

  • ARE WE THERE YET
    IT SEEMS THAT YOU NOT THERE YET LOL

    I KEEP REFERRING TO THE MANS ARTICLE AND TO THE IMPORTANT PART YOU LEFT OUT IN YOUR LONG SUMMARY

    THE MAN SAID

    SW structurely consists of linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units linked by(beta) b 1-3 glycosidic bonds. In some cases b1-6 glycosidic bonds occur. Since the cell wall of SW contains cellulose.

    MAN THAT IS BASIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY/BIOCHEMISTRY LOL LOL

    BARE MOCK SPORT IN DE RUM SHOP LOL LOL

    ARE THEY ANY OTHER OR BETTER CHALLENGERS ?

    Like

  • @ Piece from hero to zero
    Re The Government of Barbados is bereft of ideas.
    That is SAD…..that is BAD
    And I have none to give them
    Re Barbados Underground is the de-facto participatory Workspace
    for the Government of Barbados under this BLP administration.
    For it is here the intelligencia come.
    That is SAD. Then they really scraping the barrel
    Re If you note carefully, whatever topic that they need
    responses on, AND RAPIDLY, it gets published here among the dribblers like de ole man, and AC and dat feller George Brafwit de cvntsultant.
    I call it the Innocuous Inserts where 25 to 35 serious comments are made and Whaplax, the following week Abrahams and de rest uh dem talking de same subjects SOMETIMES WITHOUT EVEN CHANGING A WORD!!!
    I DID NOT KNOW THAT BUT THANKS FOR TELLING ME
    RE So dont you think that when you come here and mention the encounters you had wid dem racists doctors dat Mia and she Ministers in to Ministry of Whatever doan see dem comments and tek notice
    I HOPE SO, CAUSE WE DON’T NEED THEM IN DE ISLAND LOL

    Like

  • @Are We at 2:05 PM, but of course “Dr. Lucas is a qualified expert in Food Science” etc. That is not in doubt. But this is not a peer review session or a submission to an academic journal.

    As you depicted the minutiae of MUCH OF the scientific data could be mainly stripped from the piece and clarity of intent fully retained for this forum…. that is the ONLY point I wanted to make on the essay. I question NONE of the sceince.

    The doc GP is a mere mirth making curmudgeon intent on mocking for its sake in this forum.

    The fact that he contradicts himself in his merry making twists is too often an outcome….sometimes truly embarrassingly funny as now other times just amazingly self serving..

    Thus “arcane” is of bird brain value in one riposte, yet from his intellectual heights it was a biochemistry that was totally over our heads…to borrow @Bernard’s words: there is pellucid clarity when a wise man can detect that the science is over our heads but then boldly refute the apt description as arcane and thus understood by a few! 🤣🤣

    The time we waste on this blog with these ‘tautological’ dipsidoodle foolies of self indulgence!

    Liked by 1 person

  • Are-we-there-yet

    GP;

    From Wikipedia a definition of Sea weed.

    Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several SPECIES of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.[1] The term includes some types of red, brown, and green macroalgae. Seaweed may provide excellent opportunities for its industrial exploitation as they “could be a source of multiple compounds” (i.e. polysaccharides, proteins and phenols) with applications such as food [2][3] and animal feed,[3] pharmaceuticals [4] or fertilizers.

    They are living organisms, not biochemicals nor chemicals.

    Liked by 1 person

  • IN MOST UNIVERSITIES FOLK DONT ACCEPT WIKEPEDIA DEFINITIONS

    SINCE SEAWEED ARE polysaccharides AND proteins AS YOU POINT OUT, then they are biochemical compounds according to all of the leading Biochemistry texts lol

    you dont go to Wikipedia for Biochemical knowledge
    you go to LEHNINGER
    MARKS AND MARKS ETC

    polysaccharides and proteins are addressed in both contemporary organic chemistry and biochemistry texts

    biochemistry is about the chemistry of LIVING ORGANISMS this includes plants animals humans and Seaweed or macroalgae which are several SPECIES of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.

    cell biology is a branch of Biochemistry lol lol

    ARE WE THERE YET IT SEEMS THAT YOU ARE NOT THERE YET

    at the DUMMMY SCIENTOLOGIST

    “Dr. Lucas is a qualified expert in Food Science” etc. That is not in doubt. TRUE

    But this is not a peer review session or a submission to an academic journal. THE BLOGMASTER FOUND THE ARTICLE TO BE GERMANE AND PRINTED IT…NOT SO

    As you depicted the minutiae of MUCH OF the scientific data could be mainly stripped from the piece and clarity of intent fully retained for this forum….

    that is the ONLY point I wanted to make on the essay. I question NONE of the sceince. YOU HAVE NO POINT AND YOU CERTAINLY CAN NOT QUESTION THE ” sceince” CAUSE YOU DONT KNOW ONE SHIT BOUT IT

    RE The doc GP is a mere mirth making curmudgeon intent on mocking for its sake in this forum.
    AND BOY DO I LOVE IT ESPECIALLY WHEN IT IS YOU LOL LOL THE EXPERT ON CERVICAL INJURIES LOL LOL

    RE The fact that he contradicts himself in his merry making twists is too often an outcome….I HAVE NEVER DONRE THAT DUMMY

    RE from his intellectual heights it was a biochemistry that was totally over YOUR HEAD MOST DEFINITELY LOL

    BERNARD SAID IT WAS PELLUCIDLY VLEAR BUT COULD NOT SAY HOW

    RE The time we waste on this blog with these ‘tautological’ dipsidoodle foolies of self indulgence!
    NO I GET TO ENJOY LARFING AT THOSE WHO WANT TO CHALLENGE MY SIMPLE INNOCENT STATEMENTS

    WHEN THE WISE SCIENTIST BERNARD CHALLENGED MY INITIAL STATEMENT I CHALLENGED HIM TO EXPLAIN BASICS THAT HE HAS REFUSED OR IS UNABLE TO DO

    AND THE NON BIOCHEMIST YOU ARE RELYING FOR COMFORT REVERTS TO WIKIPEDIA TO COME BACK WID BULL SHIT

    BARE MOCK SPORT IN DE RUM SHOP

    Like

  • ARE WE THERE YET DISCARDED THE BASIC BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE SCHOLARLY LUCAS’S ARTICLE TO GO TO WIKIPEDIA FOR BULL SHIT

    AND PIECE IS TELLING ME THAT THE GUVMENT RELIES ON THE BULL SHIT ON BU FOR IDEAS? REALLY? WHAT A LARF

    I AM LOST AND AT A LOST LOL LOL

    Like

  • I am an engineer (Math, Physics, Chemistry) and never went near biology but I did do Latin to 5th form, loved it … but no Greek.

    So I decided to look up bio as a prefix.

    The Greek root word bio means ‘life.’ Some common English vocabulary words that come from this root word include biological, biography, and amphibian. One easy word that is helpful in remembering bio is biology, or the study of ‘life.’

    Wikipedia!!

    … but that is all Greek to me!!

    Like

  • JOHN

    YOU ARE AN ENGINEER AND NOT A BIOLOGIST, SO YOU SENSIBLY DID NOT TRY TO CONTRADICT ME, UNLIKE MY DETRACTORS HERE ON BU

    I STARTED MY BIOLOGY EXPERIENCE IN 6TH FORM, BECAUSE UNLIKE YOU I COULD NOT HANDLE THE MATHS OR THE PHYSICS. I EVENTUALLY DID IST YEAR PHYSICS AT UNIVERSITY

    I HAVE BEEN STUDYING BIOCHEMISTRY SINCE 1970 AND TEACHING IT FORMALLY SINCE 2002

    IN 1975 I TOOK THE BIOCHEM EXAM IN THE CLASS AHEAD OF ME AT MED SCHOOL IN ORDER TO AVOID TAKING THE COURSE

    I MENTORED THE BAJAN LAD WHO WON THE BIOCHEM PRIZE IN THAT CLASS .
    SINCE I WAS JUST SEEKING EXEMPTION FROM THE COURSE I COULD NOT COMPETE FOR THE PRIZE

    IT IS WITH THIS BACKGROUND THAT I CAN MOCK WITH SCORN ALL THE MORONS WHO CAME UP AGAINST ME TO DAY. THEY WOULD LIKE TO TAKE ME DOWN, NOT REALIZING THAT I WAS SETTING THEM UP FOR A WHIPPING

    SEAWEED IS A PLANT BASICALLY COMPOSED OF CELLULOSE
    WE TEACH THIS IN THE FIRST WEEK OF BIOCHEM COURSES

    THE DR PARTICULARLY POINTED OUT THE BONDING OF THE SEAWEED AND POINTED OUT WHY IT COULD ONLY BE USED TO FEED RUMINANTS—–WHO CAN BREAK BETA BONDS, BUT COULD NOT BE USED TO FEED NON RUMINANTS OR HUMANS WHO CAN NOT BREAK BETA GLYCOSIDIC LINKAGES

    TO ME THIS WAS THE SALIENT PRACTICAL POINT OF HIS ESSAY………NOT THAT THERE WERE NOT OTHERS

    I JUST PLAYED WITH MY DETRACTORS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT AS I SAID INITIALLY THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SCHOLARLY ARTICLE WOULD BE LOST ON THE BU BRAYERS AND BRIMBLERS

    WE MAY WELL SAY, LIKE JESUS’ DISCIPLES OF OLD….”MASTER, WE HAVE TOILED ALL DAY AND CAUGHT NOTHING”

    I GOT TO LAUGH AT THE IDIOT DPD ONCE MORE, AND I ENJOYED IT IMMENSELY

    Like

  • NOW JOHN YOU KNOW THAT CO2, H20 Fe Mg Cu are all inorganic compounds……..but suppose I tell you that they are important bio-molecules?

    with out Fe, you cant make haemoglobin and you cant respire properly
    Mg, Cu Zn are important co-factors in many biochemical reactions in living organisms including sea weed plant animals etc

    Without Mg or Mn you cant begin to metabolize glucose, for example

    All biochemical reactions take place in water……….and either give off water or take up water
    And we do more than breathe out CO2
    CO2 IS MADE IN THE BODY AND USED IN THE SYNTHESIS OF MANY IMPORTANT BIO-MOLECULES LIKE UREA AND THE NITROGENOUS BASES USED TO MAKE DNA AND RNA ETC AND THUS ATP, THE MAJOR BIOLOGICAL CURRENCY

    I REALLY HAD SOME FUN TODAY MOCKING THESE FOOLS

    Like

  • What is a ruminant?

    an even-toed ungulate mammal that chews the cud regurgitated from its rumen. The ruminants comprise the cattle, sheep, antelopes, deer, giraffes, and their relatives.
    a contemplative person; a person given to meditation.

    The business problem is how do you get from the seaweed to a finished saleable product?

    We don’t have many ruminants here that need feeding but, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela … South America, have four foot ruminants in abundance!

    Not many, if any, contemplative persons here either!!

    So, could we end up with a feed for ruminants which can be produced at sea and sold for forex?

    Wouldn’t that be the ideal business venture?

    Who would tax the profits, if any, made in international waters?

    Register the ship in some non tax domain.

    Like

  • Are-we-there-yet

    GP; I’m back after watching my grandaughter taking part in a ballroom dancing show / competition.

    You said above “I REALLY HAD SOME FUN TODAY MOCKING THESE FOOLS”. You should have added …and making a fool of myself.

    You yourself said in another post “SEAWEED IS A “PLANT” BASICALLY COMPOSED OF CELLULOSE
    WE TEACH THIS IN THE FIRST WEEK OF BIOCHEM COURSES”. I really need to go no further to prove my point. But I must to ensure that you fully understand the mistake that you have been making.

    Seaweed is not an organic chemical. Its metabolic processes produces organic chemicals. Seaweed has all the characteristics of a living organism. IT IS NOT A BIOCHEMICAL. Biochemicals are normally produced by living organisms. So cellulose might be classed as a biochemical. But most plants are composed of biochemicals, inter alia. Plants are living organisms not biochemicals. Seaweed is a living organism that is the source of numerous biochemicals.

    The definition of seaweed that they taught you in the first week of your biochem courses is not even up to the level of a wikapedia definition.

    Here are 4 definitions of seaweed from recognized dictionaries:

    Merriam-Webster
    Seaweed definition: a mass or growth of marine plants. 2 : a plant growing in the sea; especially : a marine alga (such as a kelp)

    Cambridge English Dictionary
    seaweed definition: a green, brown, or dark red plant that grows in the sea or on land very close to the sea.

    Dictionary.com
    Seaweed definition; Any of various red, green, or brown algae that live in ocean waters. Some species of seaweed are free-floating, while others are attached to the ocean bottom. … Seaweed is also a natural source of the element iodine, which is otherwise found only in very small amounts.

    Collins English Dictionary
    seaweed definition; any of numerous multicellular marine algae that grow on the seashore, in salt marshes, in brackish water, or submerged in the ocean. Any of certain other plants that grow in or close to the sea.

    There are some documents that are purely concerned with the use of bulk products from seaweed and interchangeably use the word seaweed to represent either the plant or the bulk product. An FAO document, A guide to the seaweed industry, FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER 441, has an abstract, reproduced below, that illustrates the interchangeability of the term seaweed.

    “Seaweed is a very versatile product widely used for food in direct human consumption. It is also an ingredient for the global food and cosmetics industries and is used as fertilizer and as an animal feed additive. Total annual value of production is estimated at almost US$ 6 billion of which food products for human consumption represent US$ 5 billion. Total annual use by the global seaweed industry is about 8 million tonnes of wet seaweed.”

    “Seaweed can be collected from the wild but is now increasingly cultivated.(Very interesting that they cultivate a biochemical product!) It falls into three broad groups based on pigmentation; brown, red and green seaweed. Use of seaweed as food has strong roots in Asian countries such as China, Japan and the Republic of Korea, but demand for seaweed as food has now also spread to North America, South America and Europe. China is by far the largest seaweed producer followed by the Republic of Korea and Japan but seaweeds are today produced in all continents.”

    “Red and brown seaweeds are also used to produce hydrocolloids; alginate, agar and carrageenan, which are used as thickening and gelling agents. Today, approximately 1 million tonnes of wet seaweed are harvested and extracted to produce about 55 000 tonnes of hydrocolloids, valued at almost US$ 600 million.”

    Yuh see! Just like you they persist in mixing up and confusing the use of the word “seaweed”.

    Liked by 1 person

  • Are-we-there-yet

    John;

    Yuh shotting! A great Idea that derives directly from ruminating on Bob Lucas’ article.

    Like

  • Are-we-there-yet

    Indeed, Dr Lucas’ article also suggests that it might be possible to develop genetic engineering methodologies to produce feed from Sargassum seaweeds for non-ruminants also, even though it would be more complicated than ruminant feeds and need longer R&D inputs.

    I would like to suggest again that a serious look should be taken at exploiting the seedweed on our shores and in the sea in our economic zone with a view to extracting various products for sale for FX. Dr Lucas would be an excellent resource for heading up a programme under the aegis of the new Blue economy ministry and with linkages to the dr. O’Garro project at UWI and the work the Ministry of Agriculture (and perhaps CARDI as well) is currently doing.

    Like

  • ARE WE THERE YET YOU ARE SUCH AN ASS AND A BIOCHEMISTRY ILLITERATE
    YOUR IGNORANCE HAS NO BOUNDS
    YOU ARE JUST GOING AROUND IN CIRCLES WITH YOUR SEMANTICS
    READ WHAT LUCAS SAID YA FOOL

    YOU ARE GOING AROUND IN CIRCLES
    SIMPLY HILARIOUS
    YOU SOUND LIKE THE MAIN STREAM FAKE NEWS MEDIA LOL

    IT IS CLEAR THAT YOU KNOW NO BIOCHEMISTRY AND DONT UNDERSTAND ANY

    CELLULOSE IS A POLYSACCHARIDE TAUIGHT ABOUT IN ALL BIOCHEM COURSES
    IT IS A CARBOHYDRATE

    LUCAS WRITES the carbohydrate content of seaweed as a substrate
    I.E SEAWEED CONTAINS CARBOHYRDRATES ….THE POLYSACCHHARIDE CELLULOSE LOL

    LUCAS WRITES
    SW structurely consists of linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units linked by(beta) b 1-3 glycosidic bonds. In some cases b1-6 glycosidic bonds occur. Since the cell wall of SW contains cellulose.

    THIS IS BASIC BIOCHEMISTRY THAT YOU OBVIOUSLY DONT UNDERSTAND
    READ IT UP IN THE FIRST CHAPTER OF STRYER, OR MARKS AND MARKS OR LENINGER OR ANY OF THESE STANDARD BIOCHEMISTRY TEXTS

    HEAR YOU
    Seaweed is not an organic chemical.
    IS SUGAR AN OR GANIC CHEMICAL? IT CERTAINLY AINT INORGANIC
    ORGANIC CHEMICALS ARE COMPOSED BASICALLY OF CARBON

    ORGANIC CHEMISTRY IS THAT BRANCH OF CHEMISTRY THAT DEALS WITH CARBON COMPOUNDS LOL

    HEAR THE ASS ……Seaweed has all the characteristics of a living organism.
    AND SO IT DOES IT IS COMPOSED OF CELLULOSE WHICH IS AN ORGANIC CHEMICAL IDIOT

    Its metabolic processes produces organic chemicals.
    THE METABOLIC PROCESSES OF YOUR BODY PRODUCES ORGANIC CHEMICALS TOO DUMMY

    ONE OF THEM IS CALLED UREA
    IT IS MADE FROM A MOLECULE OF NHA FROM PROTEIN METABOLISM AND TWO CARBON DIOXIDE MOLECULES ah lie lol

    we uise the urea from animal urine as fertiliser dont we lol

    hear is an ass trying to teach a PROFESSOR OF BIOCHEMISTRY ABOUT CELLULOSE AND BIOCHEMISTRY

    then you wonder why i come to BU TO MOCK

    you are going around in circles trying to prove that i DONT KNOW WHAT I AM TALKING ABOUT AND YOU DONT HAVE A CLUE

    HILARIOUS

    Like

  • Are-we-there-yet

    GP; I was trying my best not to descend to your level. But that looks like an exercise in futility.

    YOU ARE A RH IDIOT WHO CANNOT SEEM TO COMPREHEND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PLANT AND A PRODUCT FROM THAT PLANT.

    Sugarcane is a plant. the Sugarcane joints we eat or use as planting material is a product of that plant but, since they can reproduce, they are also plants in their own right. Sucrose and waxes and cellulose and various fine chemicals are products of sugarcane, they are not sugarcane. They might be organic chemicals or biochemicals, but they are only products of sugarcane.

    Seaweeds are also plants. You appear to use “seaweed” as a term to describe food and mass feedstock products derived from seaweeds. But organic chemicals or biochemicals, Cellulose and Iodine and alginates , etc. etc. are NOT seaweeds. They are merely products of seaweeds.

    Why can’t you see that the various definitions given for seaweeds accurately describe Bajan’s understanding of what Seaweeds really are and how they are described in practically all general dictionaries? Even your Biochemistry 101 definition aligns with the definitions I gave.

    Liked by 1 person

  • John;
    Yuh shotting! A great Idea that derives directly from ruminating on Bob Lucas’ article.
    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    So there is at least one contemplative person alive in Barbados!!

    Like

  • … and as a member of the family of ruminants, I can assure you I do not eat and will not be eating any seaweed!!

    Like

  • Correct John
    That Sargassum is garbage collector of everything in the ocean
    The captalist as done with any product would capitalise on this garbage telling people about the benefits and then a couple years down the road they would be a recall of the product because one chemical found in the sargussum can cause cancer
    Let mother nature do the job it was meant to do like cleaning the very toxins we have avoid eating
    Why must mankind have to stick there ugly noses in everything mother nature does to keep us healthy

    Like

  • my day began with great mirth when I read this statement by BU’s latest expert in Organic and Biochemistry
    in his quest to call me a very foul name he wrote

    Even your Biochemistry 101 definition aligns with the definitions I gave.
    He is suggesting that I teach a Biochemistry 101 course

    i beg leave of the blog to share the Biochemistry section of the USMLE objectives which I have been teaching over the last 16 years to Medical and para medical students

    1.1 Biochemistry and molecular biology
    1.1.1 gene expression: DNA structure, replication, and exchange
    • DNA structure: single- and double-stranded DNA, stabilizing forces, supercoiling
    • analysis of DNA: sequencing, restriction analysis, PCR amplification, hybridization
    • DNA replication, mutation, repair (eg, xeroderma pigmentosum) and degradation
    • gene structure and organization; chromosomes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • recombination, insertion sequences, transposons
    • mechanisms of genetic exchange (transformation, transduction, conjugation)
    • plasmids and bacteriophages
    1.1.2 gene expression: transcription
    • transcription of DNA into RNA; enzymatic reactions, RNA; RNA degradation
    • regulation: cis-regulatory elements, transcription factors, enhancers, promoters
    • defects in transcription and RNA processing (eg, thalassemias)
    1.1.3 gene expression: translation
    • the genetic code
    • structure and function of tRNA
    • structure and function of ribosomes
    • protein synthesis
    • regulation of translation
    • post-translational modifications
    • protein degradation
    • defects in translation and protein structure (eg, hemoglobinopathies, cystic fibrosis)

    1.1.4 structure and function of proteins
    • principles of protein structure and folding
    • enzymes; kinetics, thermodynamics, reaction mechanisms
    • structural and regulatory proteins; ligand binding, self-assembly
    • mutations that alter proteins (eg, hemoglobinopathies, familial hypercholesterolemia)
    1.1.5 energy metabolism; metabolic sequences and regulation
    • generation of energy from carbohydrates, fatty acids, and nonessential amino acids; glycolysis, glycogenolysis, pentose phosphate (phosphogluconate) pathway, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
    • storage of energy: gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis
    • thermodynamics: free energy, chemical equilibria and group transfer potential; the energetics of ATP and other high-energy compounds MODULE 7
    • altered energy metabolism (eg, cyanide poisoning, mitochondrial myopathies, diabetic ketoacidosis)
    1.1.6 metabolic pathways of small molecules and associated diseases
    • biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids (eg, phenylketonuria, maple syrup urine disease)
    • biosynthesis and degradation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides (eg, gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome)
    • biosynthesis and degradation of lipids and cholesterol, steroid hormones, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes (eg, adrenogenital syndrome)
    • biosynthesis and degradation of porphyrins and bile acids (eg, porphyrias)
    1.1.7 biosynthesis and degradation of other macromolecules and associated abnormalities; complex carbohydrates (eg, lysosomal storage disease); glycoproteins and proteoglycans

    Like

  • at 12:11 last night ARE WE THERE YET WROTE

    YOU CANNOT SEEM TO COMPREHEND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PLANT AND A PRODUCT FROM THAT PLANT.

    WHEREAS AS THIS IS NOT TRUE AND WHEREAS AWTY IS HAVING SOME PROBLEMS WITH HIS COMPREHENSION AS A NATURAL PART OF HIS SENILITY

    I WROTE THAT LUCAS WRITES
    SW structurely consists of linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units linked by(beta) b 1-3 glycosidic bonds. In some cases b1-6 glycosidic bonds occur. Since the cell wall of SW contains cellulose.

    THE GOODLY LUCAS POINTS OUT THAT SEAWEED
    consists of linear polysaccharides
    he then gives its chemical structure thus ………linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units linked by(beta) b 1-3 glycosidic bonds. In some cases b1-6 glycosidic bonds
    he states that the the cell wall of SW contains cellulose.

    THIS IS SIMPLE SOUND (101, ID YOU LIKE ) BIOCHEMISTRY

    Like

  • My thoughts as a ecologist/biologist.

    Sea weed is an aquatic organism. In the article it also specifically mentions sargassum is a macro algae and two species of primary concern to the region are provided. These would be composed of inorganic and organic compounds (including said biochemicals). However, it is of itself is not a biochemical or organic chemical. Would you call a mango tree a compound? The same principle applies. Sea weed is “organic”. However, it is not a biochemical or organic chemical (singular) as it is not composed of only one compound. Just because it structurally is composed primarily of something does not mean it is solely composed of something. Organisms are made of compounds (saccharides, lipids, peptides and nucleic acids) but are not a single compound by them self, and I have never seen them called such in my education, research, or in any form of scientific literature.

    I would also like to mention as a younger person who occasionally browses this blog. Currently, regardless of how good a submitted article is, a good amount of comment threads tend to end up more like a rum shop (I have seen some posters made reference to this proudly). This blog would not be considered for serious discussion for a lot of people unless you get proper moderation and set rules in place for posting etiquette. As it is, I usually only browse this blog for comedy reading some of the comments posted, particularly in submissions relating to politics.

    Like

  • Are-we-there-yet

    JRB;

    Thanks for explaining the difference between seaweeds like the sargassum and seaweed products or components, from the standpoint of a young ecologist / biologist.

    Liked by 1 person

  • On another note, one thing I have noticed in passing and repassing the Worthing area, it is getting stinker and stinker!!

    I believe an explanation may be the injection wells.

    As the sewage finds its way to the sea underground and finally appears there it creates the smell.

    An oldtimer from the Gibbons area related an instance to me of the time an irrigation well was dug in the flat area just under the ridge.

    He told me they had to close it up fast because of the stench so I told him that it was probably the sewage from the houses on the ridge getting into the sheet water and venting up through the well shaft.

    If you are putting the sewage into the sea via the injection wells, for sure it will stink.

    Better get the force main to Needhams Point fixed pronto!!

    Like

  • … another good reason to close the beach!!

    Like

  • Agree with you John. Had reason to visit the St.Lawrence Gap recently and in the area of the police station and entrance to Graeme Hall Sanctuary the stench although overpowering is present.

    Like

  • RE As it is, I usually only browse this blog for comedy reading some of the comments posted, particularly in submissions relating to politics.

    I AGREE WITH YOU 100 %
    SO DO I
    I COME TO BU FOR ITS COMEDY LOL

    I THANK YOU FOR THE PIECE OF COMEDY THAT YOU HAVE INJECTED IN YOUR IGNORANCE IN YOUR POST AT JRB July 15, 2018 9:03 AM

    WITH ALL DUE RESPECT, YOU ARE TALKING SHITE JUST LIKE AWTY, YOUR MENTOR OR ALTER EGO

    CIRCULAR ARGUMENT AND COMEDY VERY AWTY -ESQUE & DPD-ESQUE

    THE CRUX OF LUCAS’ ARTICLE WHICH I POINTED OUT FROM THE START IS AS LUCAS POINTS OUT……..
    SW structurely consists of linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units linked by(beta) b 1-3 glycosidic bonds. In some cases b1-6 glycosidic bonds occur. Since the cell wall of SW contains cellulose.

    THE GOODLY LUCAS POINTS OUT THAT SEAWEED
    consists of linear polysaccharides
    he then gives its chemical structure thus ………linear polysaccharides made up of 25-30 glucose units linked by(beta) b 1-3 glycosidic bonds. In some cases b1-6 glycosidic bonds
    he states that the the cell wall of SW contains cellulose.

    THIS IS SIMPLE SOUND SOLID BIOCHEMISTRY FOUND IN ALL THE LEADING BIOCHEMISTRY TEXTS

    YOU AND YOUR MENTOR OR ALTER EGO HAVE CREATED A STRAW MAN

    Like

  • I am not sure who my mentor or alter ego is supposed to be? That was my first time posting on this site as the blog master can confirm. I am arguing the point that seaweed is not a chemical/biochemical/organic compound. I saw that mentioned earlier, which is incorrect. I am not speaking to anything else, so i am not sure how circular logic and straw man fallacies apply.

    What you are saying does not refute my point and neither does the above article. You are just mentioning one of its structural constituents. However, I never argued saying that seaweed does not contain polysaccharides. I think you are confusing my point. My point is that seaweed is not a chemical/biochemical/organic compound by itself but it an organism comprised of them. Saying seaweed is a compound is like saying a mango is a organic compound to go back to my original example. Or did you not realise that mango also has cell walls possessing polysaccharides.

    You are making the mistake of confusing Lucus giving the chemical formulae of the structural components (SW structurally consists of) with thinking he is giving the chemical formulae of seaweed itself. For example, we humans have a skeletal system for structure. If I gave you the chemical formulae for hydroxyapatite that still does not make a human a compound as we are comprised of more than bone. The paper linked below gives the chemical composition of some seaweeds. Notice that there is no one “seaweed compound”.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3667364/

    Furthermore, only persons who cannot prove their point resort to ad hominen attacks and all caps typing (and it is disappointing that an educated person would resort to this). Feel free to provide any piece of scientific literature where any organism is referred to as chemical/biochemical/organic compound.

    Liked by 1 person

  • Are-we-there-yet

    JRB;

    GP doesn’t understand anything you said above. Its best not to feed the Troll. Pity I can’t seem to take my own advice.

    Liked by 1 person

  • The Day is Past and Over”
    Translated by John M. Neale, 1818-1866
    1. The day is past and over;
    All thanks, O Lord, to Thee!
    I pray Thee now that sinless
    The hours of dark may be.
    O Jesus, keep me in Thy sight
    And save me through the coming night.

    The joys of day are over;
    I lift my heart to Thee
    And ask Thee that offenseless
    The hours of dark may be.
    O Jesus, keep me in Thy sight
    And guard me through the coming night.
    The toils of day are over:
    I raise the hymn to Thee
    And ask that free from peril
    The hours of dark may be.
    O Jesus, make their darkness light
    And guard me through the coming night.
    Lord, that in death I sleep not,
    And lest my Foe should say
    “I have prevailed against him,”
    Lighten mine eyes, I pray.
    O Jesus, keep me in Thy sight
    And guard me through the coming night.
    Be Thou my Soul’s Preserver,
    O God, for Thou dost know
    How many are the perils
    Through which I have to go.
    Lover of men, oh, hear my call
    And guard and save me from them all.

    Like

  • Hi. Great read. M in Mexico we have problems with sargassum here too. Question for a food scientist. I’m reading about high levels of arsenic and heavy metals being present in sargassum. Does this pose a threat? I am using sargassum as fertilizer for vegetables. Will they be safe to eat? Is there anything I can do on a small scale with the sargassum. They dump it in the jungle near my house. I have loads of it. Is it worth trying to do something with it to get biofuel?

    Like

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