Why the Haste to Appoint a Governor General?

Prime Minister Freundel Stuart

In early 2015 Prime Minster Freundel Stuart announced that Barbados will switch from the monarchical system of government to republican status. It is December 2017- almost two years later- with a general election on the horizon and clearly Barbadians must conclude that this is another empty promise by a politician.

The appointment of Justice Sandra Mason makes the BU household question how can we hold our politicians accountable. How is it possible for a prime minister of Barbados to boldly state in 2015 that he will champion the transition to a republic and then do nothing to deliver and we ACCEPT it.

Why is there a rush to appoint a governor general if the plan is to ‘shift’ to republican status? The irony is that the political class [a collective] is expressing glee at what is being termed a popular choice for governor general. The BU household holds no brief for Sandra Mason, she appears to be a decent lady, however, the public should be expressing outrage at another broken promise, the media should be questioning and probing the political morality of the government. The Barbados Labour Party (BLP) should be asking why the hurry to appoint a governor general, a governor of the central bank and possibly a director of public prosecutions weeks before a general election. On the flipside, how many permanent secretaries are acting in the position and for how long therefore compromising their ability to execute?

It is morally wrong!

We know this Democratic Labour Party (DLP) does not practice political ethics in governance. Take the flagship example of Michael Carrington who as Speaker was found to be dishonest in his dealings with a septuagenarian wheelchair-bound client and the prime minister did nothing about it except to advise him to secure a lawyer. We can add another example of prime minister Freundel Stuart signing-off on the Cahill deal without admitting it publicly amidst the noise of the debate to the contrary.

Relevant links:

If the head is bad…

There will be no jumping for joy in the BU household with the appointment of Sandra Mason as governor general.



  • @ Sargeant,

    My tourism spin,

    Minus 20c in Toronto. Plus 27c in Barbados. Your choice. lol

    Happy New Year.


  • How about asking from where the jackass came?

    We know where the jackass is, so it does not matter where it came from.


  • @Hants

    I heard there may be snow flurries in Florida this week…..

    Happy New Year


  • Based on the information coming out of the meteorological office, the lowest temperature last month was recorded at Wakefield, St George at 17.2°C



  • How about asking from where the jackass came?
    easy one! See them on BU daily


  • @Hants

    You missed your calling, you should have been a meteorologist 🙂


  • @ David,

    I could have been a professional musician.


  • @ Hants
    You tend to have too much time on your hands out of fishing season.


  • Sargeant January 1, 2018 at 1:54 PM #
    How about killing two birds with one stone? While you are researching the route of the breadfruit tree, how about telling us how the Baobab tree arrived in Queen’s Park? Is it true that a slave brought a seed from Africa and surreptitiously dropped it from his pocket in what is now known as Queen’s Park? Did a white planter steal one of the seeds and buried it at Warrens? What other hiding places can we find Baobab trees in Bim?
    I am putting a new spin on the tourism efforts as in “Why go to Madagascar to see Baobabs when you can go to Bimshire and see a Baobab in the morning and swim with the turtles in the afternoon”
    Happy year of the Dog (getting a jump on Chinese New Year)

    Breadfruit —– Captain Bligh, Mutiny on the bounty


    “Because breadfruit dispersal across Oceania was dependent on human seafaring, botanical research has correlated with the human colonization of Oceania, resulting in a theory that humans brought breadfruit seeds from Melanesia to settle in Polynesia and Micronesia over thousands of years.[3][4]
    Sir Joseph Banks and others saw the value of breadfruit as a highly productive food in 1769, when stationed in Tahiti as part of the Endeavour expedition commanded by Captain James Cook.[4][6] The late-18th-century quest for cheap, high-energy food sources for slaves in British colonies prompted colonial administrators and plantation owners to call for the plant to be brought to the Caribbean. As President of The Royal Society, Banks provided a cash bounty and gold medal for success in this endeavor, and successfully lobbied his friends in government and the Admiralty for a British Naval expedition. In 1787, William Bligh was appointed Captain of the HMS Bounty, and ordered to proceed to the South Pacific to collect the plants. In 1791, Bligh commanded a second expedition with the Providence and the Assistant, which collected seedless breadfruit plants in Tahiti and transported these to St. Helena, in the Atlantic, and St. Vincent and Jamaica in the West Indies.[3][4] Although Bligh won the Royal Society medal for his efforts, the introduction was not entirely successful, as most slaves refused to eat the new food.[7]”

    Baobab ——- Look at where they occur!!! Sea carried the seeds there in all likelihood. Usually close to or in a water course. So it isn’t chance that the one at Warrens is where it is … at one time sea level was there and that was the seashore. There was one I think at Malvern. Even that was once at sea level … believe it or not.

    Here is what a Baobab sees looks like.


    Baobab seeds look as though they are easy to be spread by water/sea, breadfruit needs to be physically carried by humans to locations where it doesn’t exist.

    Yams —- yup, my farmer’s diary says 9-12 months to mature. Plant between April and June, reap 9-12 months later. Tubers can stay 3 months without sprouting!!

    Three with one stone, I shotting!!


  • So, a Baobab tree could be upwards of 1,500 years old so we can rule out slaves.


    They usually indicate a watercourse.

    An animal in Africa eats the foliage, an elephant for example, then goes to a watering hole or river and poops.

    Rains wash the seed to the sea … hydrologic cycle.

    The Trade Winds and currents bring the seed across the Atlantic.

    Barbados is the first port of call, that’s why it was so important … location.

    It ends up on the sea shore wherever that was when it reached.

    Jackasses however, like breadfruit need to be transported to places they do not exist.


  • If you look at Ligon (1647-49) you will see there were even Camels in Barbados, brought no doubt from Africa.

    Donkeys, Horses, Mules may also have come from Africa, with the Camels.

    Ligon (1647-49) refers to Assinegoes.

    The Assinegoes were brought in fact from the Azores.

    They were small donkeys and according to Ligon, replaced the Camels then in use.

    One of their great advantages was that after delivering canes to the mill they returned to the fields without a guide.



  • Thanks John, your last comment explains a lot!


  • millertheanunnaki

    @ John January 2, 2018 at 7:43 AM
    “If you look at Ligon (1647-49) you will see there were even Camels in Barbados, brought no doubt from Africa.
    Donkeys, Horses, Mules may also have come from Africa, with the Camels.”

    Why “Mules”? Why waste valuable space and incur high transportation costs (including watering and feeding) by bringing a ‘redundantly’ fertile animal to Barbadoes when the same cargo space could be occupied by’ asses’ (both black and grey) and horses to ‘mate’ and make future mules?

    After all, the word “mulatto” did not enter the English lexicon by accident.

    BTW, Sir John, would you eat green monkey meat like your ‘fellow’ brethren from West Africa?
    The Baobab tree provided not only the fruit and the nuts for the monkeys (both green and black) but also a refuge in time of hunting.


  • Hey John
    I am a bit confused you wrote
    “Baobab ——- Look at where they occur!!! Sea carried the seeds there in all likelihood. Usually close to or in a water course. So it isn’t chance that the one at Warrens is where it is … at one time sea level was there and that was the seashore.”
    If Warrens was the seashore and a Baobab seed was deposited by the currents there how long did it take for the sea to retreat to its present position and how old would it make that Baobab tree then?

    BTW if mules were brought from Africa, were the Hinnies a local product?


  • millertheanunnaki

    @ John January 2, 2018 at 7:43 AM

    What you and your black Jew boys GP and Zoe ought to be telling us is why Israel is deporting thousands of black Africans with blood money as bribe.

    Aren’t these people the descendants of one of the lost tribe of Abraham through Jacob and, therefore, are entitled to a share of the Promised Land, even if only as hewers of wood and carriers of water because of the curse of Ham?

    Is this a sign of revenge by the white Jews for their mythical 400 years in Egyptian captivity in the burning hot Sun?

    Where is your god Yahweh in this blatant act of ethnic cleansing equivalent to what happened to the Ashkenazi Jews in the ghettoes of Germany and Poland?

    Will we be seeing, in true Shylock style, a replay of the exacting of the pound of African flesh to reenact a “kristallnacht, judenrein, judenfrei” scene in preparation of the return of white King Jesus the light saviour of the world including dark Africa?


  • millertheanunnaki

    @ William Skinner January 2, 2018 at 3:21 PM #
    “Please tell us what you mean by “the spread of drugs made easier by CSME “.
    Drugs and drug related crimes have been on the increase since the early 70s.”

    Then we ought to copy the State of California and take both the mystique and profit incentives out of the ‘illegal’ drug business by turning it into any other ‘regulated’ business.

    Then most of those murders would be transmuted as possible fatal overdoses like alcoholics.

    The war on marijuana has been lost. It’s time for peace talks and armistice.

    But we doubt very much the players (including the drug enforcement agencies created since the 1970’s) in this big money spinning business would want to concede with too many jobs and bribe money at stake.



  • If Warrens was the seashore and a Baobab seed was deposited by the currents there how long did it take for the sea to retreat to its present position and how old would it make that Baobab tree then?

    Probably more than 1,500 years !!!!

    Barbados is about 700,000 years if memory serves me right … very young geologically!!


  • Waterford Bottom is a collapsed cave!!

    Its elevation is around Arch Cot!!!

    Similar principles at play.

    Your question would be how long did it take the sea to recede the cliff at Arch Cot to Carlisle Bay.

    It could be answered by looking at the dead coral in that last step and estimating its age.


  • BTW if mules were brought from Africa, were the Hinnies a local product?

    Mules can’t reproduce but have the attribute of being able to work harder than horses or donkeys.


    “The size of a mule and work to which it is put depend largely on the breeding of the mule’s female parent (dam). Mules can be lightweight, medium weight, or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight.[3]:85–87 Mules are reputed to be more patient, hardy and long-lived than horses, and are described as less obstinate and more intelligent than donkeys.[4]:5”

    Islam spread out of Arabia on horseback from the 7th century!!

    The Arabs were probably way ahead in the breeding of horses by 1492.


    “Following the Hijra in AD 622 (also sometimes spelled Hegira), the Arabian horse spread across the known world of the time, and became recognized as a distinct, named breed.[98] It played a significant role in the History of the Middle East and of Islam. By 630, Muslim influence expanded across the Middle East and North Africa, by 711 Muslim warriors had reached Spain, and they controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula by 720. Their war horses were of various oriental types, including both Arabians and the Barb horse of North Africa.[99]”

    The horses which the Spanish introduced to America were in all likelihood out of Africa/Asia.

    It isn’t farfetched to say both horses and donkeys (camels too) came to the New World out of Africa/Asia.



  • The Rev. Griffith Hughes in his book “the Natural History of Barbados” published in 1750 stated that the Baobab tree in Warrens was brought to Barbados from “Guinney”. It needs to be said however that Hughes had no formal scientific training, was believed to be a con man whose rise in the Anglican church was due to connections with persons of influence and charm. He clearly was the arch typical Bajan politician and member of the local “elite”.


  • For those who believe in the Global Warming theory, the question could also be rephrased “how long will it take sea level to return to Warrens?”


  • John January 2, 2018 at 7:11 PM #
    since there is supposed to be Global Warming why is it so cold in the south of the USA INCLUDING FLORIDA?


  • Well Well @ Cut and Paste @ Your Service

    John Liesalot got it wrong, transoceanic dispersal of the boabab in some countries like the Caribbean is highly unlikely, human dispersal through travel is more realistic.

    ……The history of introduction of the African baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae: Bombacoideae) in the Indian subcontinent
    Karen L. Bell,1 Haripriya Rangan,2 Christian A. Kull,3 and Daniel J. Murphy1

    To investigate the pathways of introduction of the African baobab, Adansonia digitata, to the Indian subcontinent, we examined 10 microsatellite loci in individuals from Africa, India, the Mascarenes and Malaysia, and matched this with historical evidence of human interactions between source and destination regions. Genetic analysis showed broad congruence of African clusters with biogeographic regions except along the Zambezi (Mozambique) and Kilwa (Tanzania), where populations included a mixture of individuals assigned to at least two different clusters. Individuals from West Africa, the Mascarenes, southeast India and Malaysia shared a cluster. Baobabs from western and central India clustered separately from Africa. Genetic diversity was lower in populations from the Indian subcontinent than in African populations, but the former contained private alleles. Phylogenetic analysis showed Indian populations were closest to those from the Mombasa-Dar es Salaam coast. The genetic results provide evidence of multiple introductions of African baobabs to the Indian subcontinent over a longer time period than previously assumed. Individuals belonging to different genetic clusters in Zambezi and Kilwa may reflect the history of trafficking captives from inland areas to supply the slave trade between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. Baobabs in the Mascarenes, southeast India and Malaysia indicate introduction from West Africa through eighteenth and nineteenth century European colonial networks.

    1. Background
    Innumerable plant species have been transported by humans around the world for a variety of practical and cultural uses. Many of these have geographically widespread or disjunct distributions, with no historical records for when and how they may have been dispersed from their places of origin to new sites [1]. Several studies of cultivated crops (e.g. [2–5]) and weeds (e.g. [6–8]) have sought to investigate the origins of taxa that lack historical documentation by using population genetics to match genotypes in the introduced and native ranges in order to determine source populations. However, genetic evidence of source populations is often insufficient for inferring agency, modes and timing of plant dispersals from their places of origin to new locations. Other evidence, such as archaeobotanical remains, can provide an indication of when the plants may have arrived and indicate possible agents and pathways of introduction [5]. Additional cultural evidence can come from comparing plant terms and uses between places of origin and introduction [9,10]. Combining all these forms of evidence can provide a more comprehensive historical understanding of the global biogeography of plant dispersals and distributions.

    The charismatic tree genus Adansonia (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae) occurs in Africa, Madagascar and Australia, with a different lineage present in each land mass [11–13]. Molecular divergence dating suggests that the three main lineages shared a common ancestor 5–15 Ma (during the Miocene), with the current distribution hypothesized to be the result of long-distance hydrochory [12,14]. Adansonia digitata L., or the African baobab, is widely distributed across continental Africa. Adansonia digitata s.l. (i.e. in the broad sense) encompasses two described species, the tetraploid A. digitata s.s. and the diploid A. kilima [12]. The distribution of A. digitata s.s. extends across much of Sub-Saharan Africa, from the northern Sahel to South Africa’s Limpopo province, but does not occur in the rainforest areas of central Africa, or higher altitude localities (above 800 m elevation) of eastern Africa [13]. Phylogeographic analyses have demonstrated populations of A. digitata s.l. in eastern and western Africa to be genetically distinct, with the eastern populations monophyletic within a paraphyletic grade of western populations [15]. Adansonia kilima is recorded in higher altitude localities (650–1500 m elevation), partially overlapping with the range of A. digitata s.s., from the eastern slopes of Kilimanjaro to northern South Africa, and west to the Caprivi Strip, Namibia [12]. Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that A. digitata and A. kilima are genetically similar, suggesting that tetraploidy evolved relatively recently [12]. In this study, we refer to this species-complex as A. digitata and hereafter use its common name, baobab.

    Biogeographic studies of baobabs in the African continent show that there are close associations between past human settlements and the presence of the species [13,16]. The baobab is highly valued for a variety of food and artisanal uses and for its cultural symbolism extending over millennia [13,17–22]. The fruit has a powdery pulp surrounding numerous seeds with a hard endocarp. The sweet–sour pulp is particularly favoured and widely consumed, but the seeds are difficult to digest without additional processing. In some parts of Africa, the seeds are eaten after roasting or grinding into flour [23]. Most commonly though, the seed is discarded or passed intact through the digestive tract after eating the pulp. This may be the means by which human-mediated dispersal of the baobab occurred. Genetic studies also suggest that humans have been the prime agents responsible for distributing the tree species across the African continent [15].

    The role of human agency in baobab dispersal is evident in its presence in the Caribbean and parts of tropical South America, where enslaved people were transported from West Africa between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries to work on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) plantations [24]. African baobab populations are also found in the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka [25–27], with sporadic distribution in various places around the Indian Ocean including Yemen, southern Iran [28], Comoros, northwest Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands [25,29], Malaysia and Indonesia [30]. The history of dispersal to these places is less well known. Although it has not been previously hypothesized, long-distance hydrochory is a possibility. Baum et al. [14] provided evidence that Adansonia in northwest Australia arrived from Africa via long-distance oceanic dispersal in the Miocene. The fruit of the African baobab has been demonstrated to remain viable after immersion in seawater for six months [15]. This could explain the coastal presence of the African baobab on the Indian subcontinent and other locations around the Indian Ocean. However, the lack of species-level divergence, according to morphological taxonomy, between baobabs in Africa and those found in the Indian subcontinent [11,13] would suggest a recent dispersal. This makes human-assisted dispersal a more plausible alternative than transoceanic drift.


  • Whereas “This makes human-assisted dispersal a more plausible alternative than transoceanic drift.” it can be dispersed BY BOTH METHODS.



  • @GP
    it can be dispersed BY BOTH METHODS
    So why did John feel compelled to write about Warrens by the shore to explain the presence of a Baobab tree there? He could have simply said “I don’t know” instead of setting up images of Baobab seeds being carried by waves to Warrens.

    BTW a single weather event does not negate the fact of Global warming.


  • RE 1 So why did John feel compelled to write about Warrens by the shore to explain the presence of a Baobab tree there?
    maybe he is not a botanist?
    RE 2 BTW a single weather event does not negate the fact of Global warming.


  • Well Well & Cut N' Paste At Your Service

    John Liesalot is full of shit that does not even contain balboa seeds, useless shit he is filled with……

    ….the Balboa seeds are more likely to be carried on oceanic drift around the Indian ocean from Africa…..to Asia, Pacific and South East Asia……not to the Caribbean, not then and not now.


  • WC

    The Baobab at Queens Park is not far from Constitution “River”.

    Here is what the sign says!!


    If we believe the sign, then it means your theory puts humans from Africa in Barbados a long, long, time before the first slaves were brought here from Africa.

    Columbus wasn’t even born!!


    You probably were sold this story too!!

    “Which reminds of the cutest story Dave Bynoe sold me one day. He said “Oh, didn’t you know, the seed of the tree at Queen’s Park was brought over by a young slave boy. He held that seed in his mouth for the entire journey from Africa to Barbados.” Soo sweet but absolutely not accurate Dave…lol. This baobab tree is over 1000 years old, predating slavery by over 5 centuries! But it could explain their appearance in other islands!”

    If you look at the 1722 Mayo Map of Barbados you will realise that the extents of “The Swamp” were far greater that the narrow canalized Constitution “River” of today.

    When there are flood rains, Queens Park is under water a good indication of where the shoreline may have been in the not so distant past.

    You can walk (with some difficulty) “Constitution “River” right up to Coffee Gully in St. Joseph, via Warrens.

    Assuming the sign is right and the tree is over 1000 years old, I have two theories.

    The one at Warrens is the first, deposited there more than 1000 years ago when sea level was up there.

    A seed came down Constitution “River” in a flood and ended up in Queens Park.

    Alternatively, they are cousins and each got there independently of the other but at vastly different times in history.

    Of course, the one at Warrens might be a second, third or fourth generation of an original one.

    The reason why the one in Queens Park is larger maybe because Baobabs store water in their trunks.

    The one at Queens Park has plenty of water available to it, the one at Warrens has water at more than 130 feet below it.


    I don’t know how the ages of these trees was determined, one at over 1000 years old, the other at over 300 years old

    Trees in tropical climates do not produce rings in their trunks as do trees in temperate climates which have a specific growth period in a year.

    Must have been radio carbon dating, … or it was just another concoction!!

    Griffith Hughes may have been used as an authority.

    I suspect the one at Warrens may be the older of the two, and by far, particularly if its existence is based on the availability of water!!


  • The one at Queens Park has plenty of water available to it, the one at Warrens has water at more than 130 feet below it.

    I got to revise that!!

    There is water flowing to the sheet water at more than 130 feet beneath the one at Warrens.

    So the one at Warrens may have access to water in an underground stream closer to the surface.

    The one at Queens Park is right in touch with the Sheet Water and can get as much as it wants.


  • Georgie Porgie January 2, 2018 at 7:51 PM #
    John January 2, 2018 at 7:11 PM #
    since there is supposed to be Global Warming why is it so cold in the south of the USA INCLUDING FLORIDA?

    I have been watching rainfall here for a while because water interests me.

    There has definitely been a change in weather here in the last two years.

    I put it down to La Nina back in early 2016.

    But there have been also some different but perfectly scientifically explicable occurrences in the sky!!

    November 29th 2016, 6 inches and 64 parts of rain in a day.

    Super moon, the moon was closest to the earth for a while.

    Eclipse of the sun, 2017.

    Terrible hurricanes

    November 2017, 3 inches and 34 parts in a day …. Super moon around that time.

    Now in January 2018, two super moons.

    We had about 1 inch and 20 odd parts this past weekend … don’t remember seeing it as overcast during daylight for as long as that …. and cold by Bajan standards.

    End of this month, another Super Moon expected, and an eclipse of the moon visible in parts of the world.


    Definitely the weather has changed but if it is due to the what’s going on in the sky, man can’t affect anything up there through global warming … even if it did exist.

    It is beyond me but I sure can see the weather is different!!


  • Well Well & Cut N' Paste At Your Service

    John Liesalot…Africans have been traveling for thousands of years before europeans…they still find African bones all across europe and all over the earth thousands of years later, thousands of years old when carbon dated…they still find their statues and pyramids all across the earth even in the US, thousands of years old……

    .,…..life did not begin for Africans with the slave trade or european travel…..as Liesalot like you will have us believe.


  • Georgie Porgie January 2, 2018 at 7:51 PM #
    John January 2, 2018 at 7:11 PM #
    since there is supposed to be Global Warming why is it so cold in the south of the USA INCLUDING FLORIDA?

    Sounds like it is the Moon … if the internet can be believed!!!!



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