Viva La Revolucion

Submitted by Grenville Phillips II

For the second time in my lifetime, masses of Cuban people publicly protested against the Government – in Cuba.  The first time in 1994, protestors called for the freedom to leave Cuba.  Castro allowed them.  This time, they are calling for freedom from dictatorship.  The Cuban Government’s response was disturbingly violent.

The demonstrations have been blamed on the US trade embargo.  This is likely true.  I join with the member countries of the United Nations, in supporting the end of the US trade embargo against Cuba.

The question is, whose responsibility is it to end the embargo?  To answer that question, it is important to understand why the US trade embargo was imposed.

THE CUBAN REVOLUTION.

During World War 2, Fulgencio Batista was the elected president of Cuba from 1940 to 1944.  He established a constitution that guaranteed the right to private property, which resulted in massive US investment.

In 1952, Batista led a military coup when he realised that he would not likely get re-elected.  He became a US-supported dictator who led a corrupt and unpopular administration.  He also repealed the 1940 Constitution.

Castro revolted against Batista in 1953, supporting the peoples’ will to restore the 1940 Constitution.  The revolt lasted about six years.  In 1959, the popular Castro became the leader of Cuba – which by that time had approximately US$1B of US investments.

THE CONFISCATION.

Castro replaced the Constitution with the Fundamental Law.  Article 24 of this Law prevented the general confiscation of private property.  Where the state had to take specific properties, it required the property owners to receive prior cash payments in compensation.  US investors were confident enough to invest a further US$63M in Castro-led Cuba in 1959.

In 1960, Castro essentially: confiscated the properties of US citizens, refused to compensate them, and amended the Fundamental Law to make the theft legal – in Cuba.

CUBAN TRADE EMBARGO.

The US citizens, whose property was confiscated, appealed to their political representatives in the US Congress.  In response, a complete trade embargo was imposed on Cuba in 1961.  The trade embargo, despite being amended several times, remains active to this day.

Relevant questions follow.  Should the trade embargo end without any compensation paid to the confiscated properties’ owners?  Should countries be encouraged, by not attracting consequences, to confiscate the private property of individuals and businesses without compensation?  Is confiscating private property without any compensation fair, morally right, and just?

END THE EMBARGO.

The US Congress is unlikely to end the trade embargo, unless Cuba compensates the US investors.  Cuba’s ill-advised actions started the US trade embargo.  An opposite action may end it.

Cuba should consider compensating the US property owners.  The amount has already been quantified – a present value of approximately US$9B.  The Cuban economy (Gross Domestic Product) is approximately $100B.  Therefore, Cuba can pay the amount in full, or negotiate easily affordable instalments, but the proverbial ‘ball’ is entirely in Cuba’s court.

OPENING THE DOOR.

Studying history allows an informed presentation of options in many situations, and an analysis of likely consequences.  The Cuban Government’s unnecessarily violent response to the demonstrations, has opened the door to the option of a US military response.

US military intervention was not previously an option in Cuba, because it required the violent repression of mass protests by Cubans in Cuba against their Government.  The mass protests started in Cuba on 11 July 2021.  Following the violent repression, the protestors in Cuba passed the baton to protestors in the US, who have already marched on Washington.  US President Biden has responded by declaring Cuba a failed state.

PATTERNS.

The Cuban authorities should remember that the Libyan government’s violent response to protestors, opened the door for US President Obama to intervene in Libya.

Cuba should also be aware that it took the US less than one week of planning to liberate Grenada in 1983.  This was six days after there were mass-protests against the Government, and the repressive reaction of the military.  The main persons surprised at the swiftness of the intervention, were those advocating that the mass-murder of Grenadian protestors be treated as an internal matter.

RUNNING OUT OF TIME.

Whenever there is a violent Government response to public demonstrators, the leaders of some countries pledge their support for the oppressors, rather than the oppressed.  While this is concerning, it briefly removes the public-relations mask, so that the public can assess what they would do if they had absolute power.

The US may not let this one-in-a-61-year opportunity go to waste.  If the Cuban government wants to claim the moral high-ground, ir should pay the US investors for confiscating their property immediately – otherwise, they risk bringing a swift end to their revolution.

Grenville Phillips II is a Chartered Structural Engineer. He can be reached at NextParty246@gmail.com

282 comments

  • Wishing everyone a great day.

    Have a great day Barbados

    Like

  • There is no racism in Cuba.

    Comrade Fidel ‘s affirmed “La Revolucion” eliminated it.

    All are equal.

    Like

  • Maybe you could relocate there and enjoy its absence.

    Like

  • Jackass Johnnie,

    Racism is everywhere. As I said before, no perfect place on earth, especially for black people.

    But here is as good a place as any.

    Like

  • Not in Cuba.

    If it were so Comrade Fidel would have said so.

    Everybody is equal.

    Like

  • Both Barbados and Cuba have the absolutely worse types of racism…that’s why Mia is not to spread that nasty shit that they are so WELL TRAINED IN to the continent into unsuspecting African lives…

    Like

  • The problem for people on the island, they may NEVER come to terms with the FACT that for the last 60 YEARS, they have been merely an EXPERIMENT…as many have been warning on BU FOR YEARS…..but people don’t pay attention and definitely don’t heed warnings, they just type and post shite…compliant and pliable.

    Like

  • Spain’s experiments, including the enslavement of Africans started at least 100 years before UK, just like Portugal, they have had a headstart of over a century….all the information is availbale.

    Like

  • WHAT HAPPENED TO
    TEAM TRUMP?

    Life after
    The Donald

    MKKKGA Making Ku Klux Klan Great Again
    As the Grand master of KKK Donald J Trump has been banned from social media for being anti-social the 2 Trump Lovers and Bum Chums John and GP could contact the Don and tell him to post on the Barbados Underground David would make a fortune

    F.E.A.R. False Evidence Appearing Real
    The first movie ever made was called the Birth of a Nation detailing the birth of the Ku Klux Klan when America was proud of it’s racism spreading like white supremacy slavery colonialism genocide and was used to recruit people for the Ku Klux Klan. Black faced white actors played negroes as rapists and murderers and the movie had a glowing review from 28th PotUS Woodrow Wilson.
    In February 1915, upon viewing The Birth of a Nation at a special White House screening, President Woodrow Wilson reportedly remarked, “It’s like writing history with lightning. My only regret is that it is all so terribly true.”

    Like

  • Prior to the collapse of St. Domingue, Spain was never interested in sugar or turning a profit from anything agricultural.

    Compared to Portugal it took far fewer slaves from Africa.

    It had the gold of the Aztecs and Incas.

    What slaves it took from Africa ended up in Potosi, extracting silver.

    That was all that mattered for Spain, gold, silver and riches. When they were used up, Spain’s empire shrunk.

    Agriculture was for food.

    Cuba was the hub where the treasure fleets assembled from Peru and Mexico to sail to Spain centuries before it produced sugar on any significant scale.

    Spain invested heavily in Cuba’s defense.

    England concentrated on trade and settlement and the driving force was religious persecution and the need to make a new life. England’s empire grew.

    Kind of like the Cubans and persecution of Castro and the communists.

    The Cubans who picked up and left at the time of Castro did extremely well in the USA and contributed to the flourishing economy they found.

    The Puritans and Quakers found nothing when they arrived and had to build an economy based on trade through the islands of the lesser Antilles with America which fed on the creation of new wealth and the inventiveness of people.

    Like

  • Spain did not need African slaves when it first reached the New World.

    It got all the slave labour it wanted from the people it found.

    Read your history!!

    Like

  • That is probably why the census data shows Cuba to be minority black.

    Slaves from Africa only start to become more numerous after 1800 so not much mixing for the 300 years prior.

    Like

  • Er…..Steupse!

    Like

  • Your average Cuban will have ancestral links to Cuba that predate Columbus.

    Like

  • … which is more reason for Comrade Ralph to intervene and seek reparations for the Cubans who were forced to flee the Cuban holocaust or lost family members in it.

    Like

  • @ John July 24, 2021 12:05 PM
    (Quote):
    Spain did not need African slaves when it first reached the New World.

    It got all the slave labour it wanted from the people it found.

    Read your history!! (Unquote).
    +++++++++++++++++++++++

    @ John July 24, 2021 12:22 PM
    Quote):
    That is probably why the census data shows Cuba to be minority black.

    Slaves from Africa only start to become more numerous after 1800 so not much mixing for the 300 years prior. (Unquote).
    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    You have left us more than a ‘bit’ confused over the gist of your argument(s).
    Aren’t you the one who really has to [re]read New World history”?

    Isn’t it ‘an’ historical fact that Cuba (like Santo Domingo) was a major destination of African slaves to the New World, and indeed the Greater Antilles, going back to the 16th Century?

    If all the early slave labour was ‘exploited’ from Cuba’s indigenous peoples; that is, the Tainos aka Arawaks, why would Spain sully its holy Roman Catholic hands by engaging in such Satan-inspired activity as the Trans-Atlantic slave trade after the god-fearing British themselves had stopped such an awfully unchristian act of inhumanity as a direct result of the over 200 years of opposition by your favourite society of friends called the Quakers who themselves were major slave owners?

    Why would the Spanish plantation owners go all the way to Africa during the 19th Century when they could have simply looked across the southern Caribbean sea and take all they wanted from Barbados and the other small Islands where there were excesses of very cheap labour and sugar production was the most unprofitable business or channel of trade in your estimation?

    Why not tell us, Dear Quaker John, why is there such a high percentage of people who are described as of ‘Mixed Racial’ Heritage in Cuba? Who raped and sexuality exploited whom?

    Who, then, are most deserving of your brand of Reparations?

    The Florida-bound ship-laden mainly poor-white burnt-skin refugees you describe as victims of Castro’s holocaust with less than 100 sea miles to cross over to paradise or the descendants of those surviving ‘chained’ captives who were packed like sardines on sail boats for weeks on end to cross the dangerous Atlantic Ocean from West Africa involving thousands of nautical miles?

    Like

  • The correct answer is – STEUPSE!

    Like

  • British Slavers and Colonialists started and all white supremacy racist crap in their colonies

    Spanish and French used to interbreed with the negroes much more

    John makes up shit instead of speaking truths of history as he is a cunt

    Like

  • walk with John the cunt then you will be GP a cunt hole..

    walk with the fool
    then you will be cooler

    walk with the wise
    then you will be wiser

    walk with the proud
    then you shall be scornful

    walk with the meek
    and you shall inherit this earth

    so wipe your weeping eyes

    Like

  • you got to wipe your weeping eyes
    and consider your ways

    Like

  • MillerJuly 24, 2021 3:01 PM

    @ John July 24, 2021 12:05 PM

    Isn’t it ‘an’ historical fact that Cuba (like Santo Domingo) was a major destination of African slaves to the New World, and indeed the Greater Antilles, going back to the 16th Century?

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    This is rubbish and makes no Geographical sense.

    First of all, Spain was not a major user of African slave labour.

    The vast majority of African slaves ended up in Brazil.

    It would make no sense taking them first to Havana and Santo Domingo and then on the Brazil.

    Go and look at a World Atlas and read up on the Atlantic Gyres.

    No way in the days of sail would a ship travel first to Havana and Santo Domingo and then to Brazil.

    Like

  • If you look at the video you should be able to understand why Trade was the major plank of the economy in Barbados in the days of sail.

    Also tells you why trade grew with time and was not capped as sugar capacity was at a low level.

    Like

  • john
    YOU MAY FIND THIS INTERESTING
    THERE IS A LOT OF TRUTH HERE I THINK
    https://rushmoredaily.com/dont-focus-on-bidens-dementia-focus-on-his-substantive-statements/

    Like

  • Miller…you really feel to engage idiot John, Portugal and Spain had a robust trade ongoing for 4 generations before the enslaved entered US and before UK entered Africa, they were running around kidnapping Africans long before that..of course there were always Africans in the Americas…they lied about that..

    Like

  • How much exercise did John and GP do today
    none zip zero nada nothing

    John made up some of his upside down twisted fantasy like a nazi false christian white supremacist racist history revisionist tripe

    GP went fishing for some rubbish about Biden who licked and fucked Trump like a cunt and gave him pain and became the PotUS in a legal stylee officially

    Like

  • when it come to right wing poo john and gp are ooligans

    only the extremists are still infatuated with trump tits

    Like

  • WURA-War-on-UJuly 24, 2021 6:13 PM

    Miller…you really feel to engage idiot John, Portugal and Spain had a robust trade ongoing for 4 generations before the enslaved entered US and before UK entered Africa, they were running around kidnapping Africans long before that..of course there were always Africans in the Americas…they lied about that..

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    The first large scale slave trading the Portuguese did was short circuiting the Trans Saharan Route for their Muslim employers delivering their consignment of slaves from sub Saharan Africa, via the Mediterranean, to ports in North Africa.

    In time, they would purchase their cargo for shipment to the New World as well from the same chiefs who had been in the business for years.

    Like

  • @ John July 24, 2021 12:05 PM
    (Quote):
    This is rubbish and makes no Geographical sense.

    First of all, Spain was not a major user of African slave labour. (Unquote).
    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    But, according to you, Spain was a major user of African slaves in the 19th Century after Britain abolished her trade in African slaves.

    So how did Africans get to the Central and South America lands (other than the Olmecs) after Spain conquered them ‘vi-et-armis’ and European-exported diseases like syphilis and the plague?

    Using the same “Atlantic Gyres” hypothesis did it make geographical sense to ‘transport’ enslaved Africans to North America 100 miles away from Cuba?

    Why did Africans find themselves transported to places like Argentina or even Mexico?

    Did it make similar “geographical sense” when the Puritans and your Quaker settlers brought African slaves to the southern colonies of the growing (dis)united States of America when they could have easily enslaved the native/indigenous people of North America?

    BTW, Brazil was colonized by Portugal and not Spain.
    Barbados was once a Portuguese outpost for collecting ‘fresh’ water and meat from ‘imported’ wild pigs.

    It was turned into a tobacco and sugarcane producing outcrop by the Portuguese Jews looking to make money from the very African slave trade; hence the name Os barbudos or its original Spanish equivalent los barbudos.

    Any trade which made Barbados a name on the maritime map had its raison d’être in the Atlantic Triangle trade with African slaves at its core.

    No African slaves, no economic prosperity for the English penal colony called Barbadoes.

    Liked by 1 person

  • I don’t suppose John will be interested in this.

    My go to whenever I need a hearty laugh. It never gets old.

    And there’s plenty more where that came from.

    😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂😂🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣

    Like

  • De Miller too hard ears doah!

    The correct answer is – STEUPSE!

    Like

  • Asshole Nathan Green gone, Rasshole Grenville Phillips gone.

    All two shit dispensers disappearing in a hurry, with their tails between their legs…

    and Miller is still here trying to flush Jackass Johnnie’s stinking shit.

    Why do you bother??? Nobody is swallowing it anyhow.

    Like

  • “Asshole Nathan Green gone, Rasshole Grenville Phillips gone.

    All two shit dispensers disappearing in a hurry, with their tails between their legs…”

    we get it

    the right wing trash want to trash talk cuba / socialism / communism

    and then think they have license to talk white trash talk like conservative republicans populism

    but nobody cares to talk about defending cuba / socialism / communism or get involved in american white trash talk

    the fun they got over trump is done and he is history discarded in the trash bin of world culture

    a blip and a blot and a stain in the bigger scheme of things in life

    Like

  • “Any trade which made Barbados a name on the maritime map had its raison d’être in the Atlantic Triangle trade with African slaves at its core.”

    global trade capitalism came from industrialisation of the african slave trade by british and slave trade triangle led to them building their empire that spanned the world, these were initial steps to vast ill gotten profits and world domination

    world territories were divided into regions carved and hacked up on maps as per legacies of the languages english spanish french etc
    used across continents

    germans were starving and africa was fully taken so hitler invaded poland targeting whites instead of non-whites which kicked of world war

    Like

  • MillerJuly 24, 2021 8:11 PM

    Using the same “Atlantic Gyres” hypothesis did it make geographical sense to ‘transport’ enslaved Africans to North America 100 miles away from Cuba?

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    You ever heard about the Gulfstream?

    … and no prizes for guessing why the TRADE winds were called the TRADE winds!!

    I figured the Gyre word would throw you a curve.

    The problem you have is you do not understand how beneficial ocean currents and wind directions were in the days of sail otherwise you would not be asking these questions.

    Donna is trying to tell you that you are only getting yourself beat up.

    Like

  • 555dubstreetJuly 24, 2021 10:49 PM

    “Any trade which made Barbados a name on the maritime map had its raison d’être in the Atlantic Triangle trade with African slaves at its core.”

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++

    So why was there trade after the Slave Trade was abolished in 1807?

    Trade happened irrespective of slaves.

    Slaves were one more commodity that also happened to fit in well to the Trade route.

    But the market, the whole raison d’être of the trade was in America in the 17th and first half of the 18th centuries, then there was India and later Australia.

    As I’ve pointed out more about twice as many Cubans were forced to flee Castro in a few decades when compared with the total number of slaves transported to America between 1619 and 1808 when America followed Britain and abolished the slave trade.

    Some breaches of the law did occur after 1808 as from 1795 to the Civil War the South needed slaves.

    Still, that was a small number when compared with the 12 or so million taken out of Africa over the centuries when the slave trade existed.

    More than half of the 12 million or so slaves ended up in Brazil over those centuries.

    The Dutch in Suriname probably accounted for a sizeable number because Suriname, like Brazil is a sizeable country.

    The French in St. Domingue, Cayenne and to a lesser extent Martinique and Guadeloupe were other major consumers.

    When England ended slavery in 1833/4, it freed about 800,000 slaves in all of its colonial dependencies a small number by comparison.

    The British Maritime economy did not depend on slaves but Trade and way stations like Barbados which facilitated trade.

    I’ll put up a couple of pretty pictures to explain the point.

    Remember, the Brits did not only operate in the Atlantic but also in the Indian and Pacific Oceans,

    The Slave Trade was a minor part of their maritime economy.

    Look at the pretty pictures and you will see.

    The Dutch had far more trade in slaves between Africa and South America using the South Atlantic Gyre.

    The Dutch also supplied Brazil.

    Like

  • A picture is worth a thousand words.

    Here are not one but two!!

    Like

  • Britain’s maritime economy was way too diverse to claim it depended on slaves.

    Such a claim belies the ability of the claimant to comprehend just how large Britain’s maritime economy became ….

    … and why Nelson’s victories were so important to Britain and its colonies, Barbados included!!!

    Like

  • Brazil received numbers of slaves that were orders of magnitude (x10) larger than the numbers America received.

    America is light years ahead of Brazil.

    Clearly slavery did not do it otherwise Brazil would be way ahead of America.

    Slavery was never the economic force it was made out to be.

    Can anyone figure out why and what was the driving force that separates America and Brazil?

    No prizes just want to see if my understanding can be challenged.

    Like

  • The day when your stinking self could speak for Donna would be the same day that pigs grow wings and fly! YOU AND I DON’T SPEAK THE SAME LANGUAGE!

    SO… Donna is trying to tell him that by even entertaining your “alternative facts” he lends you more credibility than you deserve. He should find better things to do than answer you because nobody is listening to you until the Kraken comes.

    Until such time, the answer you deserve is one big dismissive –

    STEUPSE!

    Or some putrid puerile poetry when I’m bored.

    Like

  • “So why was there trade after the Slave Trade was abolished in 1807?

    Trade happened irrespective of slaves.”

    Preamble
    Your logic is well short bent biased
    your thinking and hypotheses are deluded
    you crave attention talking nonsense

    Answer
    your initial premise is wrong from the get go so there is no point listening any further
    14,000,000 imported african slaves were bred to make a working slave population hence the trade was no longer needed

    Like

  • @Rabbit
    “It got all the slave labour it wanted from the people it found.”

    What makes you dangerous is that you engage in half lies.

    Your history omits Las Casas. This would destroy your major hypothesis.

    In your reply don’t try to minimize the role of Las Casas or point out his location in the West Indies. He had the ear of the crown.

    Like

  • Caribbean Islands were the holding depots for the underclass of black African slave workers

    they were shipped around the world but the in other colonies they were deliberately kept as minorities and segregated from whites

    When the Empire expanded Locals were subjugated to work under the Brits.

    Indians were also shipped around the world as indentured workers in British colonies

    British and Whites never built anything the underclass of slaves and indentured workers and prisoners did the work and died for their efforts. Whites in their pith helmets whipped them to ensure they did not stop.

    Like

  • “Answer
    your initial premise is wrong from the get go so there is no point listening any further
    14,000,000 imported african slaves were bred to make a working slave population hence the trade was no longer needed”

    Great answer
    You could have also added that agricultural products and other raw material still had to move across the ocean.

    @Rabbit
    The horrible movement of slaves from Africa to the Americas was just one part of a vicious triangle (a three sided figure). Minerals, rum, sugar, and other raw material still had to be taken back to Europe.

    In case the concept is too hard to grasp.. think of it this way… Though Covid-19 slowed down the movement of people, goods were still travelling the seas and the air as all trade did not stop.

    Like

  • That was a really long STEUPSE!

    Like

  • And here I am trying NOT to go to the supermarket!

    Life does not require supermarkets really.

    Like

  • John is a danger only to those who don’t know where he is coming from.

    He has only one agenda, and it spells no good for black people.

    Like

  • Worth a listen!!

    Like

  • TheOGazertsJuly 25, 2021 10:08 AM

    @Rabbit
    “It got all the slave labour it wanted from the people it found.”

    What makes you dangerous is that you engage in half lies.

    Your history omits Las Casas. This would destroy your major hypothesis.

    In your reply don’t try to minimize the role of Las Casas or point out his location in the West Indies. He had the ear of the crown.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    The Spanish Maritime Economy came to be based on Potosi in Bolivia.

    If you look at a school Atlas, you will see that Bolivia is quite a ways from Hispaniola and Las Casas!!

    You need to get past the West Indies and understand that like the British Maritime Economy the Spanish Maritime Economy was HUGE in its day … until the silver ran out!!

    The silver mines of Potosi even fed the Chinese Economy across the Pacific.

    So you will see the “Manila Galleons” using the Pacific Ocean Gyre from the time it was discovered by the Spanish in the 1500’s.

    Like

  • Hispaniola and Cuba were minute compared to the riches of South and Central America.

    Spain never had a need to exploit agricultural output from them.

    Like

  • (This post is not for John)

    Recognising the vibration of truth is easy and intuitively obvious to those who always speak truth
    if honest folks want to overstand history mystery prophecy they need to stop listening to others prejudice voices looking through lens of bias and dishonesty and put all the changes in history in context of the greatest moments of sporting history building a timeline of all rebellions and wars against British, French, Spanish etc. noting when they were defeated and nations gained independence from parasite bloodsucking vampires and evil devils ruling in dominion

    whenever they lose they changes the rules such as changing a word and rebranding slaves and slavery but still keeping slaves and slavery and calling it something else

    Like

  • The danger is that Grasshopper’s acquisition of knowledge stopped when he was 15 and he thinks too small.

    Can’t get past Las Casas when a whole other world existed.

    He thinks in terms of Rabbits and holes and he will probably never change but, I will try and educate him.

    Like

  • See who are among the earth’s anointed ones and it does not include not one colonial pimp or voluntary Slave.

    Like

  • “The danger is that Grasshopper’s acquisition of knowledge”

    shut the fuck up already with your tired old repeated juvenile crowing trope soundbite trump card from the Kung Fu TV series starring David Carradine a ballet dancer actor

    You clearly are no shaolin monk and have never ever been to a shaolin temple or even researched their dao way of life

    and are a filthy low life good for nothing son of a gun and a bitch cunting fake Christian liar who is going to a hellfire down below

    watch these two videos and educate yourself with an awakening of the mind and body

    stay silent and do not revert back with a single until you have viewed and followed along to both videos in full through to completion

    Like

  • (This post is not for John)

    The more enlightened blessed human beings can fast track their learning watching this video

    do not feed the troll engaging with any of his conflicted troubled reasonings or of lack thereof

    let the swine wallow in in his own pig shit swallowing up all his crap served until there is nothing left on his plate

    Like

  • @🐇
    “He thinks in terms of Rabbits and holes and he will probably never change but, I will try and educate him.”

    The miseducation of Theo .

    My greatest fear is some idiotic Bajan remembering you as a great historian and memorializing it in the newspaper.

    Like

  • Grasshopper

    You are out of your depth.

    The knowledge is there you just need to seek it.

    You don’t need to get it from me, in fact it will mean more to you if you find it yourself.

    You will get more understanding.

    Master

    Like

  • The true definition of an AfriKan hero.

    Like

  • That is who we celebrate, our Afrikan Queens and Kings,,.

    btw.. she was born in Cuba…an Afrikan Cuban who knows who she is..

    Like

  • Nathan 'Jolly' Green

    I wonder how many of the commentators here are suffering from Syphilitic brain damage there is so much rubbish written with just 2 or 3 people with a brain.

    According to medical research from the National Library of Medicine
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15844068/

    Evidence-based research now allows clear separation of syphilis from other diseases in its class of treponematoses. Examination of skeletons from populations with clinically diagnosed bejel and yaws revealed bone alterations distinctive to those diseases, clearly separating them from alterations due to syphilis, transcending the limitations of current DNA and immunologic technologies. These insights allowed confident identification of the New World origin of syphilis. Absence of skeletal evidence of any treponemal disease in continental Europe before the time of Columbus excludes it as site of origin of syphilis. Treponemal disease appears to have originated in East Africa with late transmission to England, perhaps as a complication of the slave trade. The original treponemal disease apparently spread from Africa through Asia, entering North America. Approximately 8 millennia later, it mutated to syphilis. Presence of skeletal evidence of syphilis at the site in the Dominican Republic where Columbus landed suggests the route by which it was transmitted to the Old World.

    It appears it originated in Africa.

    Like

  • NJGG

    Came across this documentary video a while back after the 2005 paper you posted describing skeletal evidence found in a British port city (Hull) from times before Columbus.

    Like

  • History rewritten.

    But it doesn’t contradict the possibility of East African origins suggested in the paper.

    It was found in Hull possibly because of Trade links by sea between Hull and the Mediterranean.

    Like

  • Here is a lecture given a few years before the Hull discovery.

    The historians of the day had made up their theses to fit available facts and were subsequently proven wrong.

    Like

  • Historians are sometimes utterly wrong basing their theses on the written word..

    A multi disciplinary approach will sometimes get to a better understanding and overturn earnestly held views.

    Like

  • This is the paper which follows some years later, 2012. It demonstrates how the discovery in Hull entered into the domain of peer reviewed literature.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3413456/

    Abstract
    This article discusses the presentation of scientific finding via documentary and absent the process of peer-review. We use, as an example, PBS’s Syphilis Enigma, in which researchers presented novel evidence concerning the origin of syphilis that had never been reviewed by other scientists. These “findings” then entered the world of peer-reviewed literature through citations of the documentary itself or material associated with the documentary. Here, we demonstrate that the case for pre-Columbian syphilis in Europe that was made in the documentary does not withstand scientific scrutiny. We also situate this example from paleopathology within a larger trend of “science by documentary” or “science by press conference,” in which researchers seek to bypass the peer review process by presenting unvetted findings directly to the public.

    The foundation of science is the peer review process.1 Within this process, research findings are vetted by peers who are experts in the field and can attest to the scientific worthiness of the authors’ assertions. Following publication in a scholarly venue, the popular press may disseminate the results of this research. Popular documentaries and press conferences following publication are two outlets that have gained a prominent role in realizing the obligation of scholars to bring their research to the public. However, a new genre of research has emerged that circumvents the process of peer review. In “research by documentary,” controversial results are not initially presented to colleagues in the field for evaluation but are, instead, directly presented to the public without having undergone the peer review process. These unevaluated results then become part of the body of peer reviewed research via reviews, news stories, or through personal communications. While this process has been called a “deviation” by some, it is becoming an increasingly common practice.2

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  • Are the findings reported in the documentary accurate?

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  • i like commonsense questions.

    “Sean Codger
    Julymtf 2SntS2 aartpiaegSf 9ons:o5c7 fPredgirhSM ·
    I need someone to explain human physiology to me. Why is it that womn can only perform their best athletic feats damned near nekkid while mn can break world records practically dressed in a suit of armor?
    Because from the layperson’s perspective, it would seem to me that all athletes would do better with MOST of their ass cheeks INSIDE the designated uniform. I don’t know about y’all, but pulling my shorts ALL the way out of the crack of my ass every three steps tends to reduce my best time doing ANYTHING.
    Hell, just for the sake of costs, it would seem cheaper to supply womn volleyball players with adult-sized shorts rather than refill the sand pit each morning, because we all know where most of that sand ends up by match end. And needless to say, if a grown ass mn can do the splits while wearing footie pajamas, we can put some shorts on the G*RLS competing in gymnastics.

    Of course, I suspect that these wardrobe decisions are made with an eye towards enticing men into watching women’s sports, but now that we have the Innanet, how is this supposed to work? A man is going to watch three HOURS of a womn’s volleyball match just to see the occasional cheek-slip when he can visit allthebooty-dot-com and still have 2 hours and 57 minutes to watch the US mn’s basketball game against Angola? That’s not good marketing (or time management)!
    Seriously, how is a womn running faster than you can ride a bike or skate not interesting enough on its own? How is a womn using a flimsy ass pole to vault herself a height equal to the roof of your house not worth a “peek,” even if you don’t get to see her Fallopian tubes in the process?

    And is this what we are going to do to shrink the educational gap in this country? Are we now going to have our school teachers dressed like they are in a Van Halen video to get the by students to start paying attention? And if so, is it permissible to go back to night school for your GED even if you already have a college degree? #askingforafriend
    Seriously, it should be possible for wom
    n to be able to display their TALENTS … and just their talents … for three weeks every four years. After all, it’s not like we have to start listening to their IDEAS or anything.”

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  • Told yall this is a RECKONING..

    https://www.msn.com/en-gb/news/world/indigenous-americans-demand-a-reckoning-with-brutal-colonial-history/ar-AAMBHem?ocid=msedgntp

    “As statues of queens and conquistadors are tumbled amid protests across North and South America, Indigenous people are pushing for a region-wide reckoning with colonialism’s bitter legacy of massacre and cultural erasure.

    From the Arctic Circle to Tierra del Fuego, Indigenous Americans have taken aim at the Catholic Church, national governments and other powerful institutions.

    Related: This Canada Day, let’s remember: this country was built on genocide | Mumilaaq Qaqqaq

    In Canada, the horrifying discovery of the unmarked graves of Indigenous children near former Catholic boarding schools has prompted widespread calls for a reassessment of the country’s colonial history and the structural inequalities that persist today.

    In Chile and Colombia, uprisings over social inequity have also been accompanied by demands for a reconsideration of national narratives and the lingering aftermath of conquest.

    And while contexts and histories vary drastically across the region, a common experience of marginalization, poverty and low life expectancy has prompted many Indigenous people to draw parallels across colonial borders.”

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  • Pacha…the fools now still deceiving the BLACK PEOPLE by talking stupid crap bout “our great nation” and a bunch of lying shit need to read this twice…and STOP THE FRAUD MISLEADING OF AFRICAN DESCENDED PEOPLE…..IT’S OUTRIGHT SPIRITUAL WICKEDNESS…

    “As Indigenous people, it’s important to start to re-evaluate ‘official history’ – and to understand that the colonisation of Indigenous peoples continues five centuries later across the Americas,” said Velasco.

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  • btw…for the yardfowls/slaves who have problems with geography and DID NOT KNOW….the Americas…included the Caribbean…

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  • More than a million Cubans (10-15% of the population) have been forced to flee their native land.

    Many have been killed mercilessly.

    Many are the descendants of the indigenous peoples of Cuba who Columbus came and found.

    All are victims of the Communist totalitarian regime in Cuba today.

    The regime has no religion and its adherents have butchered tens of millions throughout the world.

    Do something, say something about the current day situation right next door.

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  • Nathan Jolly Green

    Remember Ralph Gonsalves and your PM support the Cuban regime, given the opportunity they will install a similar system on you.

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  • I see PLT quiet like a likkle mouse!!

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  • This just shows the differing cultures on the continent, it is not an invitation for horny ass Caribbean men to run into Namibia, i think it is, if ya do, these are Nomads, they should make ya put cow shit in ya hair, that is also one of their customs, am sure they enforce it, if ya touch their virgins..

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  • Go deal with Gonzalves and leave us to deal with our own affairs. We don’t need your stupid American ass-kissing self in our business.

    Like

  • Recommended reading for understanding the American version of Marxism!!

    7th or 8th best seller for the author, Mark Levin

    https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/washington-secrets/mark-levin-on-a-roll-another-157-000-copies-of-american-marxism-sold-in-week-two

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