Austin ‘Tom’ Clarke: Let’s Honour Our Legends Before It’s Too Late

Submitted by David Comissiong
The Late Austin 'Tom' Clarke

The Late Austin ‘Tom’ Clarke

In December of 2015 I produced a newspaper article that acknowledged Barbados’ good fortune of possessing no less than four “living legends” of literature– George Lamming, Paule Marshall , Kamau Brathwaite and Austin “Tom” Clarke.

Well, as we learnt on Monday of this week, Tom Clarke is no longer with us!  As a tribute to the late Tom Clarke, and as a “wake up call” to my fellow Barbadians, I now reproduce a slightly edited version of the said article:–

“In just a few months time Barbados will be celebrating its 50th year of Independence. I would therefore like – at this time – to urge the people, organisations, and Government of Barbados to make an effort to identify and catalogue the various “resources” that Barbados possesses, and to resolve to fully deploy and utilize these “resources” for the development of our country.

And one of the resources that I would like to identify and bring to the attention of the nation is the cultural and psychological power embedded in the collected works of Barbados’ four living legends of literature – George Lamming, Paule Marshall, Kamau Brathwaite, and Austin “Tom” Clarke.

Yes, Barbados possesses no less than four living legends of literature! Just take a moment to think about the significance of that fact. How many other countries can boast of possessing as many as four living legends of world literature? I – for one – cannot think of any! There is no other Caribbean country, no Third World country, no so-called First World nation for that matter, that can claim to possess as many as four living legends of world literature!

But being able to lay claim to these four cultural treasures is a relatively superficial thing! The real issue is – do we recognize the valuableness of the resource that lies in our hand, and are we putting it to good use?

The youngest of the four living legends is the 81 year old Toronto-based Austin “Tom” Clarke, the winner of such prestigious international awards as Canada’s W. O. Mitchell Prize, Cuba’s Casa de las Americas Prize, and the Martin Luther King Junior Award for excellence in writing. Tom Clarke’s body of work consists of ten novels, six short story collections and three memoirs, most of which are based either in Toronto or in Barbados itself.

In Clarke’s Toronto-based stories, we are able to more clearly discern the elements of the true Barbadian, portrayed as they are against a foreign back-drop. And, as Barbadian literacy critic, John Wichkam, has observed – Clarke brings to this act of re-creation a faithful ear for the accent and rhythms of our Barbadian nation-language, and a powerful visual memory.

But there are also the Barbados based novels such as Growing Up Stupid Under The Union Jack, The Prime Minister, and The Polished Hoe, which help us to understand and to come to terms with the trauma of colonialism and the psychic damage that it inflicted

The most senior of our four living legends of literature is 88 year old George Lamming, who is considered to be the dean of Caribbean writers – an accolade bestowed upon him by the great literary critic, C.L.R. James, way back in the 1960’s.

George Lamming is the author of six novels – In the Castle of My Skin (1953), The Emigrants (1954), Of Age and Innocence (1958), Seasons of Adventure (1960), Water with Berries (1971), Natives of My Person (1972) – and of three books of critical essays, namely Pleasures of Exile (1960), Coming, Coming Home (1995), and Sovereignty of the Imagination (2009).

Lamming’s fellow “legend”, Kamau Brathwaite, explained the ground-breaking significance of Lamming’s first novel as follows –

“Then in 1953, George Lamming’s In the Castle of My Skin appeared and everything was transformed. Here breathing to me from every pore of line and page was the Barbados I had lived. The words, the rhythms, the cadences, the scenes, the people, their predicament.”

In addition, C.L.R. James never spared any opportunity to bring to our attention the many profound and cutting-edge cultural/political critiques and perspectives contained in Lamming’s works. A couple examples from just one novel will suffice to prove the point:-

“Free is how you is from the start. An’ when it look different you got to move, just move! An’ when you moving say that it is a natural freedom that make you move”.

(Season of Adventure, 1960)

“Until the age of ten, Powell and I had lived together, equal in the affection of two mothers…….. Powell and I were taught at the same Primary school. And then the division came. I got a public scholarship which started my migration into the world of the educated….the elite…… which now shut Powell and the whole village right out of my future….. I attached myself to that new privilege…….. I believe that the mad impulse which drove Powell to his criminal defeat was largely my doing……. I am responsible for what happened to my brothers.”

(Season of Adventure, 1960)

The second living legend in order of seniority is 86 year old Paule Marshall, who was born in Brooklyn, New York City to Barbadian parents, and who not only grew up in a tightly knit Barbadian immigrant community, but also visited and lived in Barbados for varying periods of time.

The highly acclaimed Paule Marshall has produced five novels, four of which explore the history, culture, vernacular, predicament and spirit of the Barbadian people “at home and abroad” – Brown Girl, Brownstones (1959), The Chosen Place, The Timeless People (1969), Praisesong for the Widow (1983), Daughters (1991), and The Fisher King ( 1998) – and a Barbados-steeped memoir entitled Triangular Road (2009).

Ms. Marshall’s novels are filled with Barbadian female characters who would resonate with and speak in a profound way to the current generation of Barbadian girls and women, if only these novels were made widely available in our country! I refer to such characters as middle-aged Silla Boyce and her Brooklyn born daughter, Selina, whose coming of age is explored in Brown Girl, Brownstones; racially conscious Merle Kinbona ,who defends the cultural integrity of the island in The Chosen Place, The Timeless People; and the sophisticated 1980’s young professional – Ursa Mackenzie – who, out of a sense of love for her country and her politican-father, sabotages the latter’s election campaign and his Cahill-type plan to sell out the country, in Daughters.

Marshall’s novels also express what Kamau Brathwaite has described as the “literature of re-connection” with Africa. Thus, in describing a number of the quintessentially Barbadian characters in Chosen Place, Timeless People, Ms Marshall reaches back to Africa:-

“A…… strikingly tall, lean old man….. His face, his neck, his clean-shaven skull, had the elongated intentionally distorted look to them of a Benin mask or a sculpted thirteenth century Ife head”….. Whereas, Delbert, the shopkeeper “was huge with massive limbs….. He was the chief presiding over the palavering …. the colourful shirt he had on was his robe of office; the battered Panama hat….. his Chieftan’s umbrella, and the bottle of white rum he held, the palm wine with which he kept the palaver and made libation to the ancestral gods.”

Our fourth living legend is the 85 year old Kamau Brathwaite, whose works of poetry, drama, history, literacy criticism, and cultural analysis are far too numerous to list!

I will therefore satisfy myself with stating that Kamau Brathwaite is easily one of the world’s most outstanding intellectuals and scholars, and that he should have won the Nobel prize for literature many times over!

I will also recommend that our educational authorities should deem at least three of Brathwaite’s works essential and mandatory texts for our secondary and tertiary curriculum:- The Arrivants (Kamau’s first, Pan-African based, trilogy of poetical works); Ancestors (Kamau’s second, and Barbados-centred, trilogy); and Barbabajan Poems (Kamau’s encyclopaedic exploration of Barbadian poetry, history, landscapes and culture).

Fellow Barbadians: we will not have the living legends with us forever! Let us, therefore, show them our appreciation, love and respect – now! And let us have the good sense to do ourselves a big favour by embracing, reading, and making full use of their invaluable works!”


  • what is your point woman?
    you said you read clarke and it made you smile
    I said that similarly I read Capt WE Johns” Biggles, and Anthony Buckeridge’s Jennings & Derbyshire and that these made me smile. I said that my father used to mock me when I read such as a little HC boy.

    i did not know it then but just as his behavior was water off duck’s back and it made me strong suck mocking prepared me for what I have jhad to endure on BU


  • are-we-there-yet June 28, 2016 at 10:58 PM #
    If you are not a frequent visitor invited to Illaro Court, are of the local gentry class, you may not see those teeth, which quickly transforms into a broaaaaaaaad smile.
    To the ordinary Barbadian, the sight of those teeth indicate a snarl.


  • Although Trinidad is a lost cause, and should be left to drift toward the East, Patrick Manning was my idea of a prime minister. He looked the part – smiling, confident and down-to-earth. None of the sullen insecurity of the Barbados PM. Fearless (even in the face of death) and more honest than most. In fact, my understanding is that he had to go to Cuba in 2008 to have a malignant tumor removed from his kidneys because he could not afford to get the procedure done in North America or the UK.
    Like Eric Williams, he spent as little time as possible abroad, and died in a local hospital after receiving less than first-rate care. The Caribbean really needs to improve the standard of its professions, and not just in medicine, but in everything else, including law, banking, accounting, etc. Too many West Indians make idle boasts about the quality of our educational system compared to that of North America, but the best and brightest of this region cannot compete with the top dogs in North America and the UK.


  • de pedantic Dribbler

    @Chad45 on what do you base the remark “the best and brightest of this region cannot compete with the top dogs in North America and the UK”?

    If you refer to development of world beating software or applications that captures the imagination of millions, then yes you are accurate.

    If you refer to development of world beating technology ( to outer space or Tesla electric car & non-fossil power) that advances society and creates great opportunities for new development and growth even as it makes millionaires for its pioneers, then yes, you are accurate.

    If you refer to development of world beating ideas in literature, science, finance et al that captures the imagination of the Nobel committee or propels their innovators/thinkers also to be multi-millionaire successes, then again yes, you are accurate.

    YET, there are regional or local brains that have also excelled in all those areas.

    The local software platform Magna was as effective a local application platform as any in the world. It was good enough to deployed locally and regionally and in Central/South America. It is not a world renowned product but the development and skill that brought that to the market compares to that out of Silicon Valley. Just one simple example. Mr. Weekes can speak to his software developments that can match with any first world brain.

    Professor Headley was a solar pioneer whose solar energy generating cells and solar still designs are used throughout the Caribbean and Central America. He was a world class scientist.

    I appreciate that we have limited ourselves and have not developed as we could and should be but your broadsides lack reality!


  • @ Dribbler,
    We (The Caribbean), have Nobel Laureates, We (The Caribbean, including Barbados) have scientists of world renown; check the achievements of Dr. Cardinal Warde, former Foundation Boy, whose developments and patents in Micro electronics are exhibited every time you turn on your cell phone. He sold the invention to Japanese developers. We, the Caribbean have world class physicians, neurologists and neurosurgeons, Check former Barbados scholar Paul …….. (Forgot his last name, but it will come back before I finish here), Paediatric Neurosurgeon in British Columbia. We have nothing to be ashamed of. I knew Patrick Manning, he trained to be a Geologist, but turned out to be a good politician.
    Chad, you are wrong we can hold our own anywhere. We have Nobel Laureates in Economics, check Sir Arthur Lewis, Literature, check Derek Walcott, Check Naipaul, etc. Because you are not aware of it you assume that we do not have. Check first and you would be surprised, right in Barbados we have a Nobel Laureate (shared) at Cave Hill in Dr. Nigel Harris; environmentalist.A Barbadian at Mc Gill University was associated with the software that resulted in Google; Can’t remember his full name now, but I think he was an Emptage. I am sure I will be corrected by more knowledgeable persons here.
    If I would have wanted to reply to GP I would have told him that I also read Biggles, etc, but did not find them edifying because I could not identify with them as I could with George Lamming who wrote about Carrington’s village, which I passed every day. I would wonder if he ever read In the Castle of My Skin, or Growing Up Stupid Under the Union Jack, pertaining to our mis-education and indoctrination. But I have decided not to answer his mouthing.
    By the way Bushie,
    “‘Legendary’ would be (for example) like if Alvin’s Book ’bout the ‘dying mile trees’ became a best-seller – or even if it turns out to be coherent….:) ha ha ha
    Suffice to say that all the people who have read my BOOKS (3) or seen my plays,(4 so far) have found them coherent, edifying, informative, and even challenging. Every book written and published is not a best seller. Who knows what will happen? Legendary who knows?
    Up and On.


  • Alvin Cummins

    We have ONE Nobel laureate in Economics and TWO in Literature. That is all. And there are no new candidates on the horizon. BTW, two of those three Nobel Laureates were educated in England, and lived there and in the US, except for short visits to the Caribbean. You should not be calling them West Indians at all. V.S. Naipaul in particular, despised the Caribbean, especially the black Caribbean, and he stays as far away from the place as he can.
    We may produce the exceptional individual, but they are exceptions, and without a critical mass of outstanding talent you cannot create a great hospital, or a great law firm, or a great accounting firm.



  • Pingback: Barbados’ Most Wanted & Other Literary Works – beautifulbarbadosblog

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