The Jeff Cumberbatch Column – The Citizen and Public Interest Litigation

Jeff Cumberbatch – Chairman of the FTC and Deputy Dean, Law Faculty, UWI, Cave Hill

“The citizen ha(s) a legitimate interest in upholding the Constitution and the rule of law” –per Lord Hodge [May 8 2017]

Those persons who either heard or read last week’s media reports of the postponed hearing in what has now become known as the Hyatt matter, would have heard the applicant, Mr Comissiong, disclose the nature of the response filed by the defendant against his application for judicial review and his subsequent reference to a recent decision of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council on appeal from Trinidad & Tobago that spoke to the issue of locus standi or standing to sue.

What first bears remarking for me about his comment is the sheer incongruity of the fact that Trinidad & Tobago, despite constituting the seat of the Caribbean Court of Justice and despite being for over 40 years an independent republic with a native Head of State, Executive and bicameral legislature, should still seek the authoritative opinion on the right of any of its citizens to challenge State action from a court constituted solely of British noblemen. Ah well. It is still an exercise in sovereignty, I suppose.

The decision itself is instructive. It appears that Mr Reginald Dumas, a former ambassador, High Commissioner and head of the Public Service, was not satisfied that two of the individuals nominated for membership of the Police Service Commission satisfied the criteria for appointment stipulated in the Constitution. The relevant provision read:

“The President shall…nominate persons who are qualified and experienced in the disciplines of law, finance, sociology or management , to be appointed as members of the Police Service Commission”

It should be noted that the process of appointment required the President to consult with the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition in the nomination of the individuals. The President then notifies the House of Representatives of each of his nominations; a notification that is subject to the affirmative resolution of the House. On approval of the nominations, the President then makes the appointment.

In Mr Dumas’s view, two of the nominees of the President did not possess the requisite qualifications and experience and thus the Police Service Commission was improperly constituted.

In his affidavit accompanying the application for judicial determinations on the meaning of the phrase “qualified and experienced”, on whether the two nominees had the necessary qualifications and experience and on whether the PSC was properly and constitutionally constituted, Mr Dumas conceded that he would not be personally affected by the consequences of the appointments. Indeed, he affirmed:-

“Nor did I judge that I would be directly affected in my individual capacity by any possible consequences of the Notifications, if approved by the House of Representatives. Rather I was and am concerned as a citizen who has for many years written and spoken publicly about the need for good governance in this society, particularly including respect for our institutions such as our Constitution, which is the highest law of the land. I am therefore acting in what I consider to be the public interest of Trinidad and Tobago.”

One preliminary issue was whether the claim had been properly brought under the Part 62 of the Civil Proceedings Rules [CPR]. The court at first instance found against the applicant on this point, holding that any interpretation of the Constitution by the Courts had to be in a circumstance where the claimant had alleged a breach of his or her fundamental rights and Part 62 had expressly excluded such proceedings. According to Part 62:

“This Part deals with the procedure to be followed-

(a) when any enactment (other than the Constitution) gives a right to apply to the court… [Emphasis added]

On appeal, the Court of Appeal overturned this ruling, holding that the court had jurisdiction to hear the claim, not as a constitutional action, but as an administrative action under Part 56 of the CPR which dealt with applications for judicial review and for a declaration in which a party is the State, a court, a tribunal or any other public body. The Court of Appeal also held that if Mr Dumas had wrongly commenced the action under Part 62, the Court could remedy that error by using its power to put matters right under Part 26.8(3) of the CPR.

In the written reasons that it issued subsequently, the Court of Appeal emphasized that the central issue was one of standing to sue. It made reference to a provision in section 5 (2)(b)of the Judicial Review Act 2000 of Trinidad & Tobago that is in pari materia [identical to] with section 6 (b) of the Barbados Administrative Justice Act (referred to in this space some two weeks ago) that the court may grant administrative relief not only to an individual whose interests are adversely affected but also to “any other person if the Court is satisfied that that person’s application is justifiable in the public interest in the circumstances of the case”.

The judgment sets out the court’s policy to public interest litigation in a statement that emphasizes the primacy of the rule of law and the Constitution-“In our opinion, barring any specific legislative prohibition, the court, in the exercise of its supervisory jurisdiction and as guardian of the Constitution, is entitled to entertain public interest litigation for constitutional review of alleged non-Bill of Rights unlawful constitutional action; provided the litigation is bona fide, arguable with sufficient merit to have a real and not fanciful prospect of success, grounded in a legitimate and concrete public interest, capable of being reasonably and effectively disposed of, and provided further that such actions are not frivolous, vexatious or otherwise an abuse of the court’s process.”

Their Lordships on the Board unanimously found this to be the correct approach. In their opinion –“This Court is the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution and to this Court is assigned the delicate task of determining what is the power conferred on each branch of Government, whether it is limited, and, if so, what are the limits and whether any action of that branch transgresses such limits. It is for this Court to uphold the constitutional values and to enforce the constitutional limitations. That is the essence of the rule of law…[T]he rule of law requires that those exercising public power should do so lawfully. They must act in accordance with the Constitution and any other relevant law.” [Emphasis added]

Of course, a judgment of the JCPC on appeal from Trinidad & Tobago is not binding on the local courts. However, given the persuasive authority expressly attributed to its decisions by the CCJ, our apical court, the present decision should prove highly persuasive.

The modern emphasis for permitting the pursuance of litigation against the state and the grant of relief to an individual appears no longer to lie solely in that person’s interests being adversely affected by the state action but, rather, once such application is in the public interest. The JCPC was careful to itemize some of the relevant factors in this determination as found in the relevant Trinidad& Tobago legislation, although it should be noted that the local legislation is silent on these matters and leaves the issue to the satisfaction of the court solely. These were –

“(a)     the need to exclude the mere busybody

(b)       the importance of vindicating the rule of law;

(c)       the importance of the issue raised;

(d)       the genuine interest of the applicant in the matter;

(e)       the expertise of the applicant and the applicant’s ability to adequately present the case; and

(f)        the nature of the decision against which relief is sought.”

To be continued…

90 comments

  • Caswell Franklyn

    Jeff

    This is a brilliant article. Even though you are not in opposition to anything but just merely clarifying the law, this article might earn you the designation – Enemy of the State.

    Like

  • Vincent Haynes

    Jeff

    A very insightful article.

    How can a poor concerned citizen question the good governance of our society…..in other words he sees something questionable but cannot afford legal fees to carry it to court,where can he turn to or who does he go to?

    Like

  • @ Jeff
    As an educator…

    How do you explain the FACT that so many UWI law graduates, at high levels of our government, are so piss poor
    …in their interpretation of the Law;
    …in their work efficiency;
    …and in their ethical performance?

    Do you think that UWI owes us (the public) a duty to offer real-time commentary on the level of professional conduct of this highly questionable profession?

    Like

  • @Bush Tea

    To add to your point about ethical performance of lawyers in general the response to the Michael Carrington situation by prime minister Stuart must be one of the greatest faux pais and lack of moral leadership by a person of prominence in our history.

    Wrong is wrong!

    Liked by 1 person

  • William Skinner

    Jeff
    Another great article in the public’s interest. Should be widely appreciated.

    Like

  • Caswell Franklyn

    Jeff

    Please explain this section of your article, in order to clarify my thoughts in light of my query that follows:

    Of course, a judgment of the JCPC on appeal from Trinidad & Tobago is not binding on the local courts. However, given the persuasive authority expressly attributed to its decisions by the CCJ, our apical court, the present decision should prove highly persuasive.

    As I understand it, the case was brought under a Trinidad statute which is really a codification of the common law. Since the court was in effect ruling on the common law as it relates to judicial review, I would also have been ruling on the common law position in England. If that is the case, in my view (which I can be persuaded to change if shown my error), it would also be the common law position of Barbados. Section 46.(1) of the Interpretation Act states, in part:

    “common law” means the common law of England.

    My query is seeking a twofold purpose:

    To enhance my knowledge; and
    There are members of my union who have matters that should be litigated but they are afraid of the backlash. Could I, as their representative, bring an action in my name for the courts to review, let’s say, the recent qualification order?

    Like

  • Jeff Cumberbatch

    Of course, a judgment of the JCPC on appeal from Trinidad & Tobago is not binding on the local courts. However, given the persuasive authority expressly attributed to its decisions by the CCJ, our apical court, the present decision should prove highly persuasive.

    @Caswell, if I understand your implied question here, you are wondering why the decision should not be binding. It may be on the common law, but it is the judgment of a (now) foreign court and hence, according to the doctrine of judicial precedent, it cannot “bind” the courts of a foreign jurisdiction. That is why I settled for “highly persuasive” only.

    There are members of my union who have matters that should be litigated but they are afraid of the backlash. Could I, as their representative, bring an action in my name for the courts to review, let’s say, the recent qualification order?

    I should think that so long as the order was made under statutory authority and so long as you are not excluded by any of the considerations mentioned in my last paragraph, that it would be perfectly competent for you to bring a public interest action under section 6(b) of the AJA.

    Like

  • Jeff

    Could you answer mine above????

    Like

  • Well Well & Consequences Observing Blogger

    “The modern emphasis for permitting the pursuance of litigation against the state and the grant of relief to an individual appears no longer to lie solely in that person’s interests being adversely affected by the state action but, rather, once such application is in the public interest.”

    Maybe if Fruendel and his clueless ministers read this over and over, they will understand what “in the public interest” means and that it has nothing to do with any of them being elected, reelected or having minority crooks creating mediocre, low paying jobs.

    Like

  • Jeff Cumberbatch

    *@ Jeff
    As an educator…

    How do you explain the FACT that so many UWI law graduates, at high levels of our government, are so piss poor
    …in their interpretation of the Law;
    …in their work efficiency;
    …and in their ethical performance?

    Do you think that UWI owes us (the public) a duty to offer real-time commentary on the level of professional conduct of this highly questionable profession?*

    @Bush Tea, the short answer to your first question is that most of the lawyers in Barbados are now UWI law graduates. Thus, given your penchant for ascribing “brassbowlery” to most Barbadians, it should logically follow that the lawyers as a class would be no different. Do these failings exist because they are lawyers? Or because they are UWI alumni(ae) or because they are Barbadian.

    Kindly note that they would also have been graduates of our secondary schools and attendees at our churches. Incidentally, have you carried out a comparative analysis with foreign assembled layers?

    As to your second query, I have told you on more occasions than one before that UWI is no more responsible for the professional misconduct of the practicing lawyer than his or her parents, home, primary school, secondary school, or community. We teach them what the law is, not how to deal with their clients’ accounts or with deposits made on property purchases. We might be culpable in re their deficiency in legal knowledge, but not their professional misconduct.

    Like

  • Bernard Codrington.

    Vintage Jeff Cumberbatch. Very timely and insightful.

    @ Bush Tea @ 8 : 31 AM.

    The ones you referred to slipped through the net when Jeff was on a bathroom break. In the final analysis ,it is a matter of character and upbringing. No university or school can assure consistently high character.

    Like

  • Jeff Cumberbatch

    *Jeff

    A very insightful article.

    How can a poor concerned citizen question the good governance of our society…..in other words he sees something questionable but cannot afford legal fees to carry it to court,where can he turn to or who does he go to?*

    Sorry Vincent, I must have missed yours on my initial scroll down. Since the court is conferred with exclusive constitutional jurisdiction to protect the rule of law, it must be used in the context you indicate. One solution is to employ, on an agreed contingency basis, a proficient public lawyer to assist you. failing that, you would have to employ political means by public protest of some kind or convince a like minded individual or entity to underwrite your litigation either financially or on a pro bono basis if he or she has the legal nous.

    Like

  • Jeff Cumberbatch

    The ones you referred to slipped through the net when Jeff was on a bathroom break. In the final analysis ,it is a matter of character and upbringing. No university or school can assure consistently high character.

    @ Bernard, thanks for your kind sentiments. The second part of your statement cannot be controverted in any way

    Like

  • @Jeff and Bernard

    Isn’t Bush Tea begging the UWI, Cave Hill to intervene in the legal profession given what is widely accepted as a systemic failing if one applies a moral/value measure i.e. a lack of leadership by the profession read the Disciplinary Committee, the significant number that occupy an under performing Lower House. The lack of citizen advocacy by members of this profession. Has this group shown it has a moral minimum? In essence the significant role played by lawyers in our society requires some entity in civil society to updeting.

    Like

  • Jeff

    In other words an inarticulate chap with no connections has no hope of getting justice in our fair land.

    Why are more Lawyers not prepared to do what Commisiong did with immigration and now Hyatt?

    What is the role of public counsel?

    Is it as you said above all down to the upbringing of our youth…….only in it for the dollar?

    Like

  • I am no lawyer but from my little exposure to administrative law and having read that Dumas judgement, I thought from the outset the PM’s defence made no sense. Glad to see Jeff’s article. Thanks.

    Like

  • Jeff Cumberbatch

    Vincent, the Public Counsel, despite the impressive title, has a very limited statutory role, confined to consumer protection. The officer you seek would be the parallel of the Public Defender in Jamaica.

    There is a saying that justice is open to all in the same way the Ritz Hotel is!

    Like

  • Jeff

    Thanks…..look like we have to agitate for a public defender as very few can avail themselves of the Ritz.

    Like

  • Caswell Franklyn

    Thanks Jeff.

    Sent from my iPad

    Like

  • de pedantic Dribbler

    @Vincent Haynes at 10:58 AM # But what more as some national good realistically can it be but “…….only in it for the dollar?”

    This debate re lawyers from BushTea is one of his hobby-horses so it will be ventilated as long as he posts here…that’s all good.

    But as Jeff said above and others too on other occasions on what basis are we asking the UWI to inculcate or indoctrinate morality and ethics to legal students…

    Should that mandate more realistically not be done for the students studying to be teachers or social workers. They are the ones in fact who will have many contact hours with citizens – many who will become lawyers – and thus better able to establish and reinforce the ethics desired.

    As said many times, lawyers are but a part of the larger society. Some will be decent lawyers and some crooked lawyers.

    How can we practically make them all more decent !

    Are there more crooked lawyers than they are decent ones?

    What about the number of teachers with bad ethical standards who are having inappropriate conduct with students…do the bad outnumber the good!

    And what about the cops who beat the life out of suspects!

    And the priests who are defrocked for staining their vows!

    To pun badly, lawyers are cut of the same Bajan cloth. Good and bad. So what special designation should the UWI have to psychologically re-educate them!

    Of course the discussion is not resolvable… the endless chicken and egg puzzle!

    Like

  • @Dee Word

    Why are you so quick to dismiss anyone who question anything? How do you know what calling out Cave Hill or Jeff for that matter may lead? The point is lawyers as a profession under-girding the framework we do business in society is significant. UWI, Cave Hill has influenced not only at tertiary but on several other facets of life. Let us agree with Bus Tea that we need to hold all professionals accountable but if commonsense supports the position that lawyers play more of a role than others we must continue to demand more from those who play a role in that sphere.

    Like

  • dpD

    Sadly you are quite correct we are all cut from the same bajan cloth…..we have been progresively moving away from being our siblings keeper.

    Jeff,is equally correct that UWI the last step in the rung,how can they be blamed for the thinking of their grads who have been socialised by our society and trained from nursery to secondary.

    Like

  • @Vincent

    See comment to Dee Word. How do you now that Dee Word or Bush Tea for that matter are correct? These are thorny problems and we must keep an open mind while searching for solutions. Why did the UWI intervene in cricket development because they observed it was failing and leadership was required? They have started programs, built physical plant etc to add value to the effort to improve the sport. What it has done does not preempt what primary, secondary and other organized activities.

    Like

  • David

    In order for us to achieve a change in attitude and thinking we have to start now with the newest generation and their parents.

    This will call for govt intervention with various carrot and stick offers to them and nursery schools…..then a complete change to our primary and secondary educational system by the ministry responsible.

    The UWIs role can only be one for suggestions like the rest of the citizens……it cannot have an advisory or consultancy role because they have never been practically exposed to such quantum leaps…..note the region which UWI belongs to is in the same mess as Bim.

    We need consultants from Finland,The Netherlands,Germany or some such country with a proven track record in this area.

    Like

  • @ Jeff
    Your response hints at exasperation, and understandably so…
    However, the question needs to be asked of a profession that currently underpins critical aspects of national governance.

    You seem to reflect Vincent’s management philosophy that all workers are dishonest thieves, and the best that we can hope for is that they will ‘leave some back’ for the true owners.

    Blaming parents, church, school and nature is REALLY scraping the bottom of the barrel, since the whole point of education is to refine the higher qualities of humanity – with particular emphasis on ethical behaviour, such that highly acclaimed graduates actually reflect the true IDEALS of that society…. to which other mortals should aspire.

    No organisation takes in worse ‘riff raff’ than the military does, but they pride themselves in graduating ‘officers and gentlemen’ at the high output end of their educational process.

    The hierarchy at UWI do themselves a disservice (not to mention what they do to the rest of our society) when they wash their hands of the graduates that THEY SPECIFICALLY empower – by granting them a Law certificate.
    Parents, churches, schools, homes or communities CANNOT grant such privileges…..

    Other foreign alumni seem to be MUCH more circumspect …least their misdeeds come to the attention of their school and of the professors who empowered them …

    It seems that UWI alumni have no such fear…. and one wonders why…!!!

    Like

  • Bushie

    We are all dishonest in one form or another………..even your BBE talks about all having fallen short of the glory……

    I am a pragmatist who deals with issues and people based on the given circumstances of the time,every person is deemed guilty until their actions prove different……not a pie in the sky operator like you believing in morality and ethical behaviour in everyone.

    Empirical evidence exists to the effect that the armed services all over the world produces the greatest amount of deviants and misogynists….go look at the UN reports…..wait you were in the military???

    Like

  • @ Vincent..
    I am a pragmatist who deals with issues and people based on the given circumstances of the time
    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    Don’t know about the ‘pragmatist’ bit ….
    Bushie was thinking of a completely different word in that context…

    Just a gentle reminder that, having nothing to say, it may not be a bad idea to do exactly that..

    Like

  • Bushie

    Chuckle……I understand……comprehension……always been your trouble…….we can but try….oh well BBE knows best giving you fewer brain cells.

    Go talk to John he is waiting….hahaha

    Like

  • Are the law students at UWI adults ?

    Like

  • @ Jeff,

    Sorry to hijack your post. I’ve just seen this depressing story coming out from Antigua in Barbados Today.

    https://www.barbadostoday.bb/2017/05/14/antigua-pm-scraps-plan-for-gun-factory/

    Like

  • “having nothing to say, it may not be a bad idea to do exactly that..”

    HA HA HA HA .. Look the Underground could be too sweet sometimes … Ha ha

    Like

  • @ David at 11:35 AM # On the contrary I do not hasten to ‘dismiss anyone who questions’

    I merely sought clarification on whither the chicken comes before the egg or vice-versa.

    Vincent summarized perfectly: ‘Jeff,is equally correct that UWI the last step in the rung,how can they be blamed for the thinking of their grads who have been socialised by our society and trained from nursery to secondary.’

    And you perfectly segued your example to prove that very point.

    The UWI cricket academy was intended to be a finishing school of sorts to provide the ‘accoutrements’ needed for the glitz and guile of professional sport. It certainly could not instill or initiate values not properly entrenched before…merely educate with great detail, advise and guide the cricketers on what to expect in their careers and the many facets and guises that construe unprofessional conduct.

    Universities always do that. As indeed lawyers are always tutored on ethics and professional standards. So to doctors to their Hippocratic oath are bound…

    Yet you recall surely that players so guided at the academy still misspoke about their grandparents mortality; and others were still confused about why someone was asking them about pitch conditions and willing to facilitate their future expenses.

    And by that same measure many others never so guided by that academy were able to appreciate that such behaviours crossed ethical lines.

    Was it the UWI then or the person’s innate persona.

    Not so lawyers too, as all of us, act to our ‘natural self’.

    Bushie can pose his questions as much as he wants and if you both believe that at 18 and 19 it’s more detailed training by UWI professors that will get our moral compasses back to true north and get our professionals to be more accountable then I wish you both well.

    Like

  • @Dee Word

    Vincent summarized perfectly: ‘Jeff,is equally correct that UWI the last step in the rung,how can they be blamed for the thinking of their grads who have been socialised by our society and trained from nursery to secondary.

    You are thinking linear. It has nothing to do with being at the end of the rung. Learning and improving is a dynamic process. If there is an opportunity to improve anintervention can occur at any time in the process after careful evaluation.

    Like

  • Well Well & Consequences Observing Blogger

    Exclaimer….it would be interesting to know who the onvestors are that are desperate to have gun factories in the Caribbean.

    Ya would think Antigua would have learned their lesson with the criminal Allen Sanford.

    When will black governments learn.

    Like

  • @Exclaimer

    It appears citizen advocacy forced Browne to back away from the decision.

    Like

  • David

    How can you intervene in something if you lack the knowledge of the subject?

    I reiterate check with Finland etc…

    Like

  • Isn’t this why our tertiary institution is better placed to intervene given the research required to inform a plan?

    Like

  • David

    Yes do the research with places like Finland etc….we have consensus.

    Like

  • That gun factory is a very,very serious matter.Imagine just 500 miles to our northwest,in Antigua with the birds known to the courts,those guns would have found their way in every Caribbean island in no time.Those factory workers would become expert gun makers in no time.There would have been the likelihood of inventory leakage and it would be hushed up.We need a Federal government,given that CSME ruling by the CCJ that allows unfettered,low threshold border controls.

    Like

  • @ David
    “You are thinking linear…..”
    ++++++++++++++++++++++
    Again, ‘linear’ is not the word that comes to mind when Bushie seeks to assess the thinking(?) of de Dribbler. Far more colourful adjectives flood the bushman’s brains…. but we digress… 🙂

    This is one of the key reasons why so-called ‘education’ in Barbados has gone to the dogs.. There are far too many clueless persons making inputs, who themselves have no clue about the objectives, the process or indeed the genesis of true education.

    Education is a total community experience. As Jeff correctly notes, it requires positive inputs from parents, family, the community, the church, the police, the schools, university, the press, the radio /TV stations …everyone.
    The role played by certifying institutions like the UWI Law School, Medical facility, Engineering faculty etc however is quite unique… in that they are expected to filter out the wheat from the chaff, and to set loose on society, these so-called ‘professionals’ – supposedly representing those who MERIT such an honour, and who should be expected to uphold the professional ethics associated with such high honour.

    UWI is CERTAINLY not only about TEACHING technical skills…. it is perhaps even more importantly, about selecting, certifying, and on an ongoing basis, OWNING responsibility for such alumni.

    Jeff certainly understands this, …Bushie is not so sure about Dribbles and Vincent, but for their information, many educational institutions are intensely jealous of the QUALITY of the professionals that they empower and set loose on society. The do this, not only to protect a trusting public, but also to protect their OWN reputation as serious institutions.

    In UWI’s case, however, perhaps it should not be surprising that after over sixty years, their graduates are largely categorised as unprepared, grammatically and arithmetically challenged, and notably unable to command much more than mid-level positions in Barbadian organisations….

    Even the resident BU joker Vincent, instinctively calls out the need to seek basic guidance from ‘Finland’ … or some such shiite place …populated with albino-centric morons…. and this after 60+ years of mediocre UWI. But this is in line with bringing Emera (formed in Canada, sometime around 2000) to take over control of the OVER 100 year-old BL&P that has been (mis?) ‘managed’ by UWI graduates for many decades…..

    BBBBBBBB!!!

    Like

  • Instead of trying to teach Law students the basics like ” tiefing is wrong ” how about

    suggesting a way to prevent lawyers from having care and control of their client’s money?

    Find a way to remove the temptation from carring way a ton a client’s money.

    Like

  • LOL @ Hants
    Shiite!!
    Ya mean you want to do a Vincent too?
    Tell them that we all know that they are thieves …. but PLEASE leave back something for the grandchildren?
    Ha Ha Ha

    You know of course that lawyers do not need to ‘control your money’ in order to rob you…? It is just that when dealing with brass bowls it is the quick and easy thing to do…

    They can sell out your case to higher bidders – as with insurance companies.
    They can personally – or through ‘associates’, …’acquire’ the properties of unsuspecting clients
    They can give bad advice -costing you a fortune…
    …and in Barbados, they can draft shiite laws that cost us all a wasteful fortune.

    Fixing the problem is DEAD simple….
    1 – Annual audits, with public details of results as is done by the Auditor General, that detail all funds held, all customer complaints and their resolutions
    2 – Immediate and harsh penalties for infringements of ethics – administered by a national, independent body and NOT the damn Bar…. (which, hopefully is ‘solid’ …since they seem to serve no other useful purpose…)
    3 – An ongoing performance rating review of all practising lawyers in Barbados, undertaken under the direction of the UWI and administered by undergraduates as their ethics project, and published on an annual basis.

    Like

  • I am finding more and more evidence that makes it clear that once upon a time Barbados was run by Quakers.

    It is their methods that made Barbados the successful country that it became.

    Now you might say so what.

    Until you start to understand the effects of their methods in the management of businesses.

    Google Quaker Business.

    Here are two links.

    http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-17112572

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Quaker_businesses,_organizations_and_charities

    There is an astonishing list of businesses that were founded on Quaker principles and run with Quaker Industry.

    Their success is remarkable and difficult to dismiss as a fluke.

    It is difficult to ignore these if you are looking for ways to fix the broken country we have caused Barbados to become.

    We obviously have something fundamentally wrong in our approach, we are shooting ourselves in the foot.

    And yet, if we take the time to look around and understand how and why Barbados once worked when it was successful, we could learn a thing or three.

    Like

  • CUP/BFP.Violet Beckles Plantation Deeds from 1926-2017 land tax bills and no Deeds,BLPand DLP Massive land Fruad and PONZI

    Caswell Franklyn May 14, 2017 at 6:56 AM #

    Jeff

    This is a brilliant article. Even though you are not in opposition to anything but just merely clarifying the law, this article might earn you the designation – Enemy of the State.@@@@

    Caswell, as People wake up there will be much more ENEMIES OF THE STATE, welcome to the club, The people have net seen the full Picture as Yet. If so the State will be on the Run, It looks like that are packing .

    Like

  • “The heart (of mankind) IS* deceitful above ALL things, And DESPERATELY wicked (or, incurably sick!) Who can know it? (Only Almighty God)” (Jer 17:9).

    “Keep your heart with all diligence, For out of it spring the issues of life.” (Prov. 4:23)

    The ‘heart’ is used as a metaphor for the ‘seat’ of man’s emotions, desires, innermost thoughts,etc, … outside of redemptive cleansing and spiritual renewal through the new ‘Birth’ from above, IN Christ Jesus, it is hopelessly lost, in its SIN stained depravity.

    Like

  • @ John
    I am finding more and more evidence that makes it clear that once upon a time Barbados was run by Quakers.
    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    See what you can dig up on their role in creating the “Barbados Slave Code”…. the most dastardly and inhumane OFFICIAL NATIONAL CODE OF CONDUCT to have been concocted….

    Like

  • The Barbados Slave Act of 1661 – Occidental Dissent
    http://www.occidentaldissent.com/2017/03/31/the-barbados-slave-act-of-1661/
    Mar 31, 2017 – The Barbados Slave Act of 1661 swept through the Greater Caribbean and … The 1661 Barbados law served as the model, directly or indirectly, …. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=eebo2;idno=A30866.0001.001.

    Like

  • Interesting to note that our forefathers on both sides of the coin were involved(enacter and recipient) in the enactment of the most heinous of laws during the zenith of mans inhumanity to man.

    Bimmers were always leaders……sad to see how we have lost the ability to be world leaders.

    Does it really matter who was the originater of these laws,when all men of that era were complicit in the worst world wide brutality known to mankind in our last 2000 years?

    Like

  • Bush Tea May 15, 2017 at 10:59 AM #
    @ John
    I am finding more and more evidence that makes it clear that once upon a time Barbados was run by Quakers.
    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    See what you can dig up on their role in creating the “Barbados Slave Code”…. the most dastardly and inhumane OFFICIAL NATIONAL CODE OF CONDUCT to have been concocted….

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    … sure I will … but after you go and look at their role in the abolition of slavery

    Like

  • The year 1648 is generally taken as the appearance of the Quakers in England.

    The year 1657 is the year of George Fox’s writings on the treatment of slaves and Indians.

    Quakers were probably not in control of Barbados in 1661!!

    The year 1676 was the year which a law was passed which forbad Quakers having slaves at their meetings and sharing the Gospel with them!!

    Sit and think for a while and see if you can put the sequence together in a manner which makes sense!!

    Just look at these simple facts and see if you can connect the dots.

    Like

  • Vincent Haynes

    Bushie

    Even the resident BU joker Vincent, instinctively calls out the need to seek basic guidance from ‘Finland’ … or some such shiite place …populated with albino-centric morons…. and this after 60+ years of mediocre UWI.
    ………………………………………………………

    Chuckle……you really are the foremost brassbowl of all………..you have not a clue as to who or what you are or where you are going….if you are not part of the western development model where Finland leads in education reform,tell us what model your BB BBE has directed you too?

    Time for others to do their homework?

    Why Finland’s education system puts others to shame
    Some of the biggest ways Finland is winning in global education.
    weforum.org

    http://wef.ch/2qINhaZ

    Like

  • Vincent
    Bushie made a solemn commitment to stop bashing you ..after your revelation of your management philosophy the other day which tags you as …. well let us say …’misguided’.

    However, BEFORE you can assess the performance of an education system … OR INDEED OF ANY SHIITE… you need to know what the OBJECTIVES are in the first place…

    Finland ‘excels’ at education …in the same way that many of our ‘academics’ excel at UWI…. by slavish dedication to the status quo, and by the mindless acceptance of albino-centric philosophy of greed and selfishness that guides the current thinking.

    The net result is the world that we now have…. one that has FAILED and is clearly doomed.

    When you feel ready to discuss the REAL objectives of education, (and therefore what a model system would look like), give Bushie a shout…

    Like

  • @ John
    … sure I will … but after you go and look at their role in the abolition of slavery
    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    We all know of their role in the abolition of slavery Boss…

    They busted our black asses for 250 years, making fortunes in the process …and decimating our best genes; … and then, when there was not much more money to be made…when people were beginning to oppose the exploitation of blacks; …..when the industrial revolution began to make slave labour too expensive in comparison…….
    …they played a leading role in the abolition of slavery … three centuries down the road….

    Now your turn Boss….

    Like

  • Vincent Haynes

    Bushie

    Bozie……can you comprehend what is written…..obviously not as your obfuscations continously atests to.

    In my above post I have asked you to identify the type of system your BB BBE wishes you to implement.

    Like your fellow Cawmerian of an earlier vintage you prefer to play for dodgers than to answer the question……wunnah got a lot in common.

    Sorry ah juss realise dah yuh mussee looking fuh yuh black ass…..skippah leh muh tell yuh a secret about yuh black ass…..um distapear ad de same said time as the decimation of our best genes took place according to you.

    Not sure how you arrived at the purity of our ancestral genes,not even sure which tribe you have identified as having them…….but then again living in utopia with BB BBE all things are possible and facts do not matter.

    I reiterate you have not a clue as to who and what you are because you dont know your past and are doomed never to find your future because of it.

    Like

  • I’ll help you to connect the dots!!

    Let’s start at the very beginning … a very good place to start!!

    Between 1626/7 and 1648 there was no Quaker ministry.

    George Fox was born in 1624.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Fox

    So no Quakers could have been in Barbados in that period, it is not possible!!

    Do you agree?

    If you agree to the obvious, then who were the settlers from England in this period and why were they here?

    Like

  • Vincent Haynes

    Bushie

    Before you write more jobby,why not send me a private msge so I can do the research for you in order to stop John from giving you a regular cut ass on the not so black derriere…..you sure you went Cawmere but then again Alvin did…..ah well,no school is perfect.

    Like

  • Thanks enuff, citizen advocacy at work!

    Like

  • William Skinner

    “A university contributes to society not merely by teaching students, but also by gathering together a group of specialists who play a part in public life outside the university.”

    Sir Arthur Lewis

    Like

  • William this is what we are talking about.

    Jeff take note!

    Like

  • So, who came to Barbados in the very beginning, 1626/7?

    The answer I believe is all sorts of dissenters looking for religious freedom!!!

    … and not only English!!

    Here are possible examples.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Dissenters

    Anabaptists

    Barrowists

    Behmenists

    Brownists

    Diggers

    Enthusiasts

    Familists

    Fifth Monarchists

    Grindletonians

    Levellers

    Muggletonians

    Puritans

    Philadelphians

    Quakers

    Ranters

    Sabbatarians

    Seekers

    Socinians

    So, what you are seeing happening today where a person, David Commissiong, is being targeted for his beliefs although you might argue not religious, is absolutely fundamental to the development of the New World.

    It evokes a completely natural and instinctive response from most persons as you are beginning to watch unfold.

    Even the Bar Association as corrupting as some of its members have proven themselves to be, is being caught up in the realization.

    You may say they are rushing to the protection of a brother, but I like to think it is something deeper than that!!

    So BT, to start pulling the threads together, I suspect most early settlers to Barbados were Puritans as in America from 1620, but there were other persuasions.

    The connection between America and Barbados is about as fundamental as it gets.

    The thinking relating to freedom of beliefs is what produced such radical Quaker concepts post 1648 as equality of women and Children with men and the abolition of slavery.

    Every square inch of Barbados is a Heritage Site because like America, Barbados was also a cradle for the beliefs and liberties which most of the world today accept as natural.

    Barbados first and foremost is about freedom of religion, belief if you like.

    The abolition of slavery is a natural result which flowed from the Quaker experience here and in America and in other parts of the New World.

    That is perhaps why the New World is so called, it was supposed to be the throwing off of the old and the putting on of the new.

    New Amsterdam/New York, New Jersey, New England etc!!!

    Like

  • Steupsss @ John
    Lets talk about something that you understand…
    Are you expecting any water issues this year?
    …or having mostly gotten past the dry season should we be OK?

    BTW …
    Were those ‘dissenters’ (whatever the hell those are..) white….?
    We don’t need the lotta long talk….

    Next thing you will be listing the various categories of Plantation owners for us:
    Tall
    Medium
    Short
    Ugly
    Hairy
    Bald
    fat
    Skinny
    Dumpy
    Beaters
    Rapists
    Lynchists…..

    Boss, let us talk water nuh…!!!

    Like

  • Any cooment on the Estwick sighting yesterday when he sought to clarify how the tenders for the several contracts were awarded by the BWA? Missing from his dialogue was a coherent response to the Auditor General report.

    Like

  • Chuckle…..unless BBE so states/dictates,no other facts exists or maybe accepted.

    Like

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reformation

    1517 -1648!!

    The year 1648 was the end of the 30 years war in Europe, also the end of the first Civil War in England where the Puritans, once regarded as dissenters, prevailed.

    In England, Cromwell, himself a Puritan becomes the head of Church and State.

    The New World and its thinking come out of the Reformation in Europe and the upheavals it caused.

    People came to Barbados to escape persecution and practice their religion freely.

    Difficult to believe that about Barbados, but the facts are there!!

    Africa was yet to come into the picture in these very early days in Barbados during the 1620’s and 1630’s.

    Ligon visited Barbados 1647-1649.

    By then Africa is firmly in the picture and he describes the interaction.

    Ligon dealt with Barbados before there was any significant incursion of Quaker beliefs.

    …. so, what did Ligon have to say about pre Quaker Barbados?

    If we know that we can compare the two.

    BT, you can read ahead and see for yourself so you can correct me if I err!!

    But, I know you won’t so you will have to wait!!

    Like

  • Now, back to David Commissiong and Dennis Kellman.

    Kellman goes on the defense.

    “Poor me, looka de lawyers tekking advantage!!”

    “Here I am hiding behind the legal protection Parliament gives me and looka de lawyers stripping it away an’ mekking me look like a jerk!!”

    It would be laughable if it weren’t so serious!!

    Dennis Kellman has proven himself unequivocally to be a complete jerk.

    http://epaper.barbadostoday.bb/html5/reader/production/default.aspx?pubname=&pubid=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a

    Like

  • Here is what Ligon had to say about the Negroe and Christian populations that existed in Barbados 1647-1649 … we’ve been there and done that already, last October, but here goes again.

    Well Well & Consequences October 13, 2016 at 7:05 PM #

    I take some of this with a pinch of salt, english people tend to tell lies, but not about their savagery in controlling others….just the fact that they describe themselves as chrtstians when we know they have always been savage animals, is cause to see through their pretense and lies….we see the centuries old intent that blacks never have power in their own land, if onky the slaves in parliament could see it as well. Will post mire excerpts gitta readbit furst,

    “Slavery on the English Island of Barbados

    Richard Ligon, A True & Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes,
    1657, excerpts*

    In 1627 the first Englishmen landed on the uninhabited Caribbean island of Barbados. Twenty years later, Richard Ligon, a royalist fleeing political turmoil during the English Revolution of 1647-1649, arrived on the island and purchased half of a functioning sugar plantation with several colleagues. He remained on the island for three years, writing A True & Exact History after his return to England.

    In separate sections he describes the masters, servants, and slaves of the island (and the few Indians, usually brought from other islands as slaves). In addition to Ligon’s interpretations of the physical and cultural characteristics of the “Negroes,” he offers personal experiences to illustrate the master-slave relationships that had evolved on Barbados.

    “It has been accounted a strange thing that the Negroes, being more than double the numbers of the Christians that are there, and they accounted a bloody people where they think they have power or advantages; and the more bloody by how much they are more fearful than others: that these should not commit some horrid massacre upon the Christians, thereby to enfranchise [empower] themselves and become Masters of the Island.

    But there are three reasons that take away this wonder; the one is, They are not suffered [allowed] to touch or handle any weapons: The other, That they are held in such awe and slavery as they are fearful to appear in any daring act; and seeing the mustering of our men and hearing their Gun-shot

    (that which
    Excerpted, images added, spelling and punctuation modernized, and some paragraphing added by the National Humanities Center, 2006: http://www.nhc.
    rtp.nc.us/pds/pds.htm. In Richard Ligon, A True & Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes, London, 1657, 2d. ed., 1673 (facsimile of 1673 ed., Frank
    Cass Publishers, London, UK, at http://www.tandf.co.uk, and Portland, Oregon, USA, 1970; ISBN 0-7146-4886-8), pp. 46, 49-51, 53-54. Reproduced by”

    John October 13, 2016 at 7:15 PM #

    “Besides these, there is a third reason, which stops all designs [plans] of that kind, and that is, They are fetch’d from several parts of Africa, who speak several languages, and by that means one of them understands not another: For, some of them are fetch’d from Guinny and Binny, some from Cutchew, some from Angola, and some from the River of Gambia. And in some of these places where petty Kingdoms are, they sell their Subjects and such as they take in Battle, whom they make slaves; and some mean men sell their Servants, their Children, and sometimes their Wives; and think all good traffic [acceptable trade] for such commodities as our Merchants send them.”

    Like

  • “Besides these, there is a third reason, which stops all designs [plans] of that kind, and that is, They are fetch’d from several parts of Africa, who speak several languages, and by that means one of them understands not another: For, some of them are fetch’d from Guinny and Binny, some from Cutchew, some from Angola, and some from the River of Gambia. And in some of these places where petty Kingdoms are, they sell their Subjects and such as they take in Battle, whom they make slaves; and some mean men sell their Servants, their Children, and sometimes their Wives; and think all good traffic [acceptable trade] for such commodities as our Merchants send them.”
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

    This information is worth researching in order to find out which tribes were used for the house,yard and field,which became artisans and merchants e.g. Bourne,Rangell,etc mainly to lay to rest the underlying animosity we bear to each other,which I posit lies in the past.

    Reconciliation has to be done amongst the tribes of west africa and those of north western europe with and amongst each other.

    Like

  • @ David
    Boss, you are a reasonable fella…
    Can you make heads or tails of this shiite that John is on about…?
    ..is he bragging about how his white ancestors took advantage of the black slaves?
    ..is he just leading Vincent on…. to display his ignorance?
    ..is he just rambling as in early stage Alzheimer’s ?
    …or is his conscience bothered by the atrocities he reads of – committed by his fore-parents..?

    Why is the man going on and on about the various categories of white people who play a role in the travesty called ‘The Slave Trade’ in Barbados?

    Wuh…
    A Quaker is just another albino …who decides to follow some shiite sect… most likely AFTER he had accumulated enough money off slavery…. and AFTER his conscience start bothering him….

    Like

  • Vincent Haynes

    Bushie

    Chuckle….cuh dear yuh gone an call David,why not BBE……comprehension bozie….nevah mine we unstan…….umh way above yuh head…..go an play wid de whacker so um doan geh tief.

    Like

  • Sorry Bushie have not been following.

    Like

  • One of the myths about slavery is that there were only house and field slaves.

    Here is the return for Kendal and Halletts from 1817, property of William Hinds Prescod who it is thought was the father of Samuel Jackman Prescod.

    https://www.ancestry.co.uk/interactive/1129/CSUK1817_133761-00347/3113843?backurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ancestry.co.uk%2fcgi-bin%2fsse.dll%3fdb%3dBritishSlaves%26gss%3dsfs28_ms_db%26new%3d1%26rank%3d1%26msT%3d1%26gskw%3dwilliam%2520hinds%2520prescod%26MSAV%3d1%26MSV%3d0%26uidh%3dud5&backlabel=ReturnSearchResults#?imageId=CSUK1817_133761-00347

    Kendal was probably one of the largest, if not the largest plantation in Barbados.

    There is a range of jobs done by the slaves.

    For the men there were, house and field slaves as well as Masons, Carpenters, Watch, Butler, Drivers of first and second Gang, Grooms, Coopers, Smiths, Distillers, Cattle Keepers, Carpenter’s Boy, Mason’s Boy, Meat Pickers etc etc.

    For the Women there were House and Field slaves as well as Nurse, Cook for the Little Negroes, Negroes Cook, Minder of Weaned Children, In charge of invalids, Sick Nurse, second, third and fourth gang drivers, Stock Minder, Calves Minder, Water Carrier, Seamstresses, etc. etc.

    The eldest slave in the return was Davy, 100 years old, he was born in Africa in 1717.

    The majority of slaves by 1817 had been born in Barbados.

    There were invalids and numerous children.

    Ages ranged from months to 100 years.

    There were 419 slaves owned by William Hinds Prescod on these two plantations.

    Smaller plantations with fewer slaves and less output could not afford the luxury of a Butler and the other specialized jobs like nurses.

    The plantation was like a state within a state which fed, clothed, housed and provided work for the slaves on it … from cradle to grave.

    You will probably find because of its size, it also provided medical attention for slaves on nearby plantations.

    One of the casualties of emancipation was basic healthcare provided by the plantations for its slaves.

    The high death rate in 1854 due to cholera was a result.

    Like

  • Vincent Haynes

    John

    Are you able to address my queries above as to which tribes were assigned to what jobs or tasks.

    Like

  • By 1817 only about 6% of the slaves in Bdos were born in Africa.

    At Kendal, apart from Davy at 100 years old, there were others and you can see what their tasks were from the list.

    I’ll have a look.

    I would imagine carpentry, masonry, distilling and other skills used on the plantation would have been transferred from people who knew in some form of apprenticeship system

    Thus, the Carpenter’s Boy or Mason’s boy would have grown up to be the carpenter or mason.

    The technology to build windmills would have probably come from Europe initially and then transferred to slaves who had the aptitude to keep them running.

    It is of interest to note that in 1722 there were in excess of 500 windmills in Barbados so without a doubt, slave labour and ingenuity were used.

    If you know the troubles, time and expense to get a single one, Morgan Lewis, running it would amaze you.

    Yet without “Crane and Equipment” all the parts were hoisted up and assembled and the whole thing kept working.

    They were treated like ships as the lifting and joining technology for the heavy timbers would have been applicable.

    Like

  • In 1817, there were three other slaves in the return for Kendal and Hallets besides Davy who were born in Africa.

    All of the other slaves had been born in Barbados.

    All three from Africa were field hands.

    Clearly there was no need for William Hinds Prescod to purchase new slaves imported from Africa and in any case he could not because the Slave Trade was abolished in 1807.

    Had he done so, he would have been in breach of the law.

    That was one of the reasons for making returns, for the British Government to ensure its new law was indeed working.

    That must say something for the high standard of health care at Kendal and Hallets in the prior years.

    Like

  • Vincent Haynes

    It has been established that slaves were a precious commodity,especially after 1807 after the slave trade was abolished and compounded by the increasing number of slaves gaining freedom by manumission or payment.

    The interest of any businessman is served by keeping his machinery and tools at optimum level which brings in the comparison of England at that time with child labour for the industrial revolution and their abuse untill the 1833&1842 acts.

    Like

  • The interest of any businessman is served by keeping his machinery and tools at optimum level which brings in the comparison of England at that time with child labour for the industrial revolution and their abuse untill the 1833&1842 acts.
    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    Now, that is what people concentrate on but if you want to find out how Quaker business worked, check this success story from the 1800’s!!

    Check how the labour was treated and the principles under which it was run.

    Only a complete idiot would accept what historians and politicians with an axe to grind tell us!!

    Like

  • Jeff,

    It is nice to be back to a sensible articles after days out under the knife, most of it reading nonsense about finance.
    But two points to a non-lawyer: you imply in an earlier answer that the Judicial committee of the privy council is now a foreign court. Is that correct. If the JCPC is now the final appeal court of T&T, then in its official capacity it is not a ‘foreign court’, but the highest court in the land.
    In fact Privy council decisions will be very influential on CCJ judgements, not the other way round. Or have I misread you?
    Second you have given a non-legal answer about what constitutes ‘professionalism’ in regard to certain occupations.
    The sociology of professionalism tell us the reality is that to be a professional in the traditional sense there must be a code of ethics which members are obliged to obey and they must undergo specialised approved training.
    You are right that the wider society is partly to blame for the professional misbehaviour of lawyers in Barbados, but ultimately it is the legal profession itself and parliament that are responsible. I(t is the reason why journalism is not a ‘profession’ but a skill or craft.
    The family, home, school, church, football clubs, etc may have an influence, but in the final analysis the profession must police the wider parameters of members’ s behaviour.

    Like

  • Sorry to read Hal, wishing you a good recovery.

    Like

  • Thanks, David.

    Like

  • Vincent Haynes

    Hal

    Best wishes.

    Like

  • Vincent Haynes

    Cadbury……an interesting tale……one the first win win entrepreneurial situations……a healthy educated workforce will redown to the greater good of the enterprise….banning alcohol and women was interesting.

    I wonder how much bigger the operation would have become without the influence of religion and would the family still have owned it today.

    Like

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Familialism

    Now, think of the Kendal/Hallets plantation list as a group, a family group if you like.

    In 1817, these 419 souls existed with their owners and managers as a homogenous group.

    It included Davy, born in Africa and then 100 years old right down to the infant in arms.

    All either starved if crops failed drastically or enjoyed the plenty of the harvest together.

    The State did not need to provide anything to this group because it provided for itself.

    Buildings were built on the lands of the plantations, lands farmed, equipment fixed all with the single primary goal of survival.

    In a way, the plantation was like a National Insurance Scheme!!!

    The profits were unequally shared as was the labor but nonetheless, they were shared.

    It wasn’t communist!!

    It made absolutely no sense to deprive a slave or slaves of their needs.

    I suggest the Cadbury Model may have been patterned on the Quaker experience with slaves!!

    I also suggest that rather than only looking at the misery of slavery in Barbados as our intelligentsia does, we should look at the ways in which it helped people to survive.

    The days are coming when the state will fail completely in the hands of the politicians and we need to apply some common sense!!

    Like

  • William Skinner

    @ Hal

    Speedy recovery. all the best.

    Like

  • Thanks, Wlliam.

    Like

  • Thanks, Vincent.

    Like

  • John May 18, 2017 at 7:37 PM #

    Interesting to note that an overlordship was required for things to function i.e. the Quaker belief system of deriving power from on high,demonstrating this power to the non homogenous workers in both cases by education and wealth and passing it on in small dosses encompassing education,morality,housing,health,pensions,etc.

    Once the overlordship with its adherence to the strictures of a belief system were removed the original operation fractured and became a different entity lacking any type of compass other than that of wealth creation for a minority at the expense of the majority.

    I have always held fast to the understanding that gods&religions were created by the leaders of the day to control the masses and once they ate of the tree of knowledge chaos would ensue for a time untill another crutch or sword of damocles could be found to start the process all over again……we are at that stage again.

    Like

  • Caswell Franklyn

    Rodney Grant is not even elected yet and appears not to be toeing the party line. I am putting my money on him being deselected.

    Sent from my iPad

    Like

  • VH

    If you follow your logic and apply it to the African experience with slavery you will immediately see that when faced with adherents to the unifying beliefs of Christianity and Islam, disunited Africa and Africans were mere pawns.

    Leaders sold their followers as they would sell trinkets.

    The Trans Saharan and Trans Atlantic slave trades extracted millions in an organised business operation … until Christianity put a stop to it.

    Again, it is the organized unified approach to facing and solving an evil that worked.

    If you project your logic to the future given the experience of the past, it follows in the absence of anything to unify us we can’t accomplish much and will become pawns in the hands of any group who maintains its unity.

    I don’t feel like becoming a trinket!!

    Like

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